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PSYCH 101 (midterm)

TermDefinition
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
major contributing theories of psychology 1. science: rigorous controlled investigation of phenomenon 2. behavior: phenomenon that are manifest 3. mental processes: unobservable, not always easily articulated
subfields of psychology counseling, developmental, educational, experimental, forensic, health, industrial-organizational (I/0), neuro, psychometric and quantitative, rehabilitation, school, social, and sport
structuralism early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
Wilhelm Wundt * established the first psychology laboratory in Germany * identify structures of the mind - hands have most sensory receptors -research described dimensions of feeling -methodology: introspection (he was trying to figure out what you were feeling.
Functionalism early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
William James * legendary teacher-writer authored a 1890 psychology text. * identify the functions of the mind - not what your feeling, why you are *focused on interactions w/ enviro * adaptive significance "why" * flow of thought (process of decision)
Psychoanalytic 1) Sigmund Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. 2) Freud's therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders. (patients gain insight from their lives; dreams, resistances..)
Freud * therapy * catharsis: talking about problems -> makes you feel better * unconscious process ( ex: hot vs cold coffee (warm=kind people, cold= stand offish people)
Classical Conditioning type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Watson THE DEVIL. * conditioning research (little Albert experiment: white rabbit/rat/steel beam) * championed psychology as the science of behavior
Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Charles Darwin * proposed a theory of evolution * did tests and experiments to see how behaviors evolved in people
Natural Selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Behaviorism the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1) but not with 2).
Skinner * leading behaviorist, rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior * focuses on what is observable
Humanistic Psychology * historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people * emphasis on positive qualities of people * humans have possibility for growth * freedom to choose own destiny
Abraham Maslow * drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential * importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied
Positive Psychology Movement the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what an intelligence test measures"
Description/Observation action or process of observing something or someone carefully in order to gain information
Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Illusory correlation the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists
Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)
Cause and effect noting a relationship between actions or events such that one or more are the result of the other or others.
Independent variables the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variables the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Statistics the practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities
Mean the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Mode the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Classical Conditioning: Pavlov a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events (Pavlov w/ the dog, bell and food)
Operant Conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Thorndike’s Law of Effect principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
B.F. Skinner * insisted that external influences (not internal thoughts and feelings) shape behavior * urged people to use operant principles to influence others' behavior (said use rewards to evoke more desirable behavior)
Positive Reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcer. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Negative Reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
Schedules of Reinforcement fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval, continuous reinforcement
fixed ratio reinforcement follows a set # of behaviors (every 5 papers graded, reward)
variable ratio reinforcement follows an unpredictable # of behaviors (skittle for every 5 papers then 7, then 2 etc..)
fixed interval reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after a set amount of time (after this many hours you get paid x)
variable interval reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after an unpredictable amount of time (lottery)
continuous reinforcement schedule that happens every single time we engage in that behavior
Positive Punishment * behavior followed by aversive consequence * aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is "added"
Negative Punishment * behavior followed by aversive consequence * rewarding stimulus is "removed"
Behavior Modification Programs using operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
Three Phases of Memory encoding, storage and retrieval
Encoding the processing of information into the memory system (where you place info)
Storage the retention of encoded information over time (how info is held)
Retrieval the process of getting information out of the memory storage (get info out)
Information Processing the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information
Sensory Memory Store * function: hold info long enough to be processed * capacity: large * duration: .3 sec visual/ 3-4 sec audio * automatically: can't choose not to use it * divided into iconic and echoic memory * requires attention to transfer info to working memory
Long-term Memory * function: organize and store * capacity: unlimited * duration: theoretically permanent (only no because when we age cells mutate)
Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal consciously repeating the information over and over so that I can keep it in temporary memory
Space effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list
Elaboration involving many carefully arranged parts or details
Visualization visual image: a mental image that is similar to a visual perception
Retrieval cues info that tells us where to go (tells which "filling cabinet" to open)
Encoding Failure associations attached were not helpful to remember (misplaced content)
Storage decay if you don't use it you lose it ( caused by age, diseases, etc..)
Forgetting curve This curve shows how information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it
Retrieval Failure * interference - proactive: old info interferes with new info - retroactive: new info interferes with old info * motivated forgetting -repression
Prenatal Development (conception) *signs of fertility -temperature o basal body temp. :body temp before we move o ovulation temp: temp goes up -discharge -cervix
Prenatal Development (fetal development) * sex organs develop * fetus is fully shaped by 12th week * age of viability (living independently w/o mother) about 22 weeks * finishing touches = weight
Teratogens * can impact fetal development -toxins -viruses - drugs * determined by timing of exposure, amount of exposure and genetic vulnerability
Newborns * reflexes - grasping, sucking, stepping and startle
Infancy and Childhood (Physical Development) - brain: myelination continues after birth, visual pathways start to develop (6 months), auditory pathways (4-5 years), dramatic increase in synaptic connections -motor: coordination
Infancy and Childhood (Cognitive Development- sensorimotor) * sensorimotor: birth-2 years - understanding through sensory experiences and physical actions - infant progress from reflexive, instinctual actions at birth to symbolic thought - object permanence
Infancy and Childhood (Cognitive Development- preoperational) * preoperational (2-7 yrs) - represent world with words and images - increase in symbolic thinking - symbolic thinking and egocentrism
Infancy and Childhood (Cognitive Development- concrete operational) * concrete operational (7-11 yrs) - has logical thinking about concrete contexts - classification skills
Infancy and Childhood (Social Development) * autonomy vs. shame/doubt (1.5-3 yrs) * initiative vs. guilt (3-5 yrs) * industry vs. inferiority (6- puberty)
Attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Types of Parenting uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, authoritative
Uninvolved Parent sets few rules doesn't monitor and offers little active support
Permissive Parent highly supportive but makes few rules and trusts rather than monitors
Authoritarian Parent sets many rules and closely monitors but offers little support
Authoritative Parent * highly supportive and closely monitors and sets rules
Adolescence (Physical Development) * primary (baby making material) and secondary (lower voice, facial hair) sex characteristics * time of firsts - menarche (1st menstrual cycle) - spermenarche (1st ejaculatory substance w/ semen) * myelin at its best
Adolescence (Cognitive Development) * formal operational stage: 11-15 yrs - abstract, idealistic and logical thought - hypothetical/ deductive reasoning * adolescent egocentrism (sense of uniqueness)
Adolescence (Social Development) * identity vs. identity confusion (constantly evolving)
James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses * identity achievement * Identity foreclosure * identity moratorium * identity diffusion
Adulthood (Physical Development) * early adulthood: reach peak of physical development * middle adulthood: most lose height & gain weight and menopause for women
Adulthood (Cognitive Development) * early adulthood: reflexive thinking/variation by edu. * middle adulthood:crystallized intelligence increases, fluid intelligence begins to decline
Adulthood (Social Development) * intimacy vs. isolation * generatively vs. stagnation * love * midlife crisis (DOES NOT EXIST)
Created by: 100001344502812