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Chapter 25

What are the non-electrolytes? amino acids (proteins), glucose, fatty acids
What are the major electrolytes? sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, chloride, bicarbonate
Ions with a positive charge are called? cations
Ions with a negative charge are called? anions
How much of the body's weight is water? Over half
Hypervolemia? excess of fluid volume present in the body
Hypovolemia? deficiency of fluid volume present in the body
Hyponatremia a deficit of sodium in the blood
Hypernatremia an excess of sodium in the blood
Hypokalemia when blood potassium levels drop below 3.5 mEq/L
Hyperkalemia when blood potassium levels rise above 5.0 mEq/L
Respiratory acidosis when carbon dioxide levels increase
Metabolic acidosis when an excessive loss of bicarbonate ions or increased production or retention of hydrogen ions occur
Effects of acidosis headache, lethargy, weakness, and confusion.
Respiratory alkalosis when carbon dioxide levels decrease, such in the case of hyperventilation
Metabolic alkalosis excess of bicarbonate ions or release of hydrogen ions, can be caused by loss of hydrochloric acid from vomiting or hypokalemia
effects of alkalosis restlessness, muscle twitching, tingling and numbness of fingers, if progresses can cause tetany, seizures and coma.
characteristics of tetany severe muscle cramps, carpopedal spasms, laryngeal spasms, and stridor
Using weight to assess fluid balance A gain or loss of 2.2 lb (1 kg) in 24 hours indicates a gain or loss of 1 L of fluid
Expected urine output: 1000 - 1500 mL/day, report less than 700 mL/day or less than 30 mL/hr
Created by: heylee34