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Argument words

Logical Fallacies

TermDefinition
Undefined terms If there is to be communication, words must have approximately the same meaning for the reader that they have for the writer. Make sure you clarify the meaning of any words that your audience may not understand
Ad Hominem( name calling) eg: "i would never vote for Tom Snyder as mayor: he hast been to church is 5 years!(Would his not going to church necessarily make him a bad mayor?) An "attack against the man" personal attack on individuals instead issues. Watch these in political campaigns!Concentrate on response to the premises of the argument, not the speaker or writer. Personal attack irrelevant argument nd weakens ur credibility
Hasty Generalization(sampling) eg:"The British are all a bunch of snobs."(Are all British people snobs?) Drawing conclusions based on insufficient or select evidence;a false assumption which results from jumping to conclusions about a group or issue. eg "All women are poor drivers." (Are all women poor drivers?)
Non-sequitur "It does not follow." A false conclusion does not logically follow the reasoning provided(and often overgeneralized or overemotional) eg:"My ancestors were communists;therefore he will make an excellent tennis player." May true but no logic to each other.
Red Herring/Arguing off the point(Ignoratio ELenchi) eg "Its ridiculous to worry about cleaning up our country's polluted waters so many innocent people are being killed by international terrorists" Fallacy when someone argues a point that is unrelated to topic or ignores the question at issue. Red herring used in argumentation introduces an irrelevant issue in order to divert attention from the real subject at hand.
Causation "After this, therefore because of this." A fallacy due to misplaced cause or effect. The mere fact that one thing takes place 1st and another thing follows does not necessarily mea that the 1st even caused the 2nd
Begging the question( circular reasoning) The conclusion simply repeats or rephrases the beginning assumption. Thus nothing is really proven.
Polarization and Either-OR-Polarization highly emotional 1 side reasoning that does not offer an alternative action or middle ground on an argument. Either-Or forces people to chooose between 2 alternatives when more than 2 alternatives may exit
Bandwagon A claim that everyone is doing something and you will be let out if you don't participate.
Biased or incompetent tesitony A fallacy brought about due to an unknowlegeable authority. Often when a celebrity does a paid promotion or a foreign medical research group attests to a product, they are trying to dazzle the consumer.
Created by: mthomas601