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Exam II Study Guide

TermDefinition
Teddy Roosevelt Communicated directly to the electorate through newspapers and magazines, utilizing the media to establish his own constituency.
Richard Nixon Paranoid of others, Nixon had a very bad relationship with the media. In the end, it was the media that exposed Watergate and ended his political career. Example of how media can be a watchdog (adversarial journalism). Southern strategy, change in region
Ronald Reagan Election of 1800, men voted heavily for Reagan, women split vote between him and Carter. Example of the gender gap in politics, women lean more to Democratic candidates, and men toward Republican.
Lyndon Johnson On 6 August 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law, calling the day ‘‘a triumph for freedom as huge as any victory that has ever been won on any battlefield’’. Ended racist voting discrimination.
John F. Kennedy Very good with media. Used television in debate vs. Nixon to convince viewers he had won, while those who listened on the radio though Nixon had won. Presidents often use media to present themselves favorably.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Eisenhower's administration called for the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which would help protect voting rights. First attempt, would be later modified in 1960 and 1964 with new legislation.
Hubert Humphrey Lost the gubernatorial election of 1998 to independent candidate and former pro-wrestler Jesse Ventura. Polls by the Star Tribune had shown Venutra to be behind other candidates. Those polls used voter history, and Ventura got many first-time voters.
James Madison Argued factions are inevitable in society. Used the federal government to keep those groups in check, as well as separating the national government to keep itself in check.
Ross Perot Led a popular campaign for the presidency in 1192, which split the Republican party and allowed democratic candidate Bill Clinton to win the presidency.
David Truman Supports pluralist view. Reasons that competing views will keep each other in check, also give citizens the ability to pursue their interests.
Mancur Olsen Claims people join interest groups for the specific benefits they receive. "Criticism of the Pluralist View"- Not all groups equally well organized
Spiro Agnew Nixon's VP. Resigned in light of Watergate scandal. 2nd VP to resign, did not have a political career after resignation, in light of accusations of bribery.
Shaw v. Reno Dealt with redistricting by race. After the 1990 census, North Carolina had to defend its district plan, which, due to its strange shape, was obviously based off of race. Supreme Court ruled it violated "color blind" electoral process(Voting Rights Act).
Buckley v. Valeo Congress amended Election Campaign Act to regulate spending. Created Federal Election Commission, with executive powers. Court ruled appointees violated stated legislative powers, and took an executive rule.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commision Under Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, a film made by Citizens United wasn't allowed to be played. Court claimed parts of BCRA unconstitutional, corporations free speech through independent channels couldn't be limited (1st amendment right)
Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC RLBC made "personal attacks", which violated Fairness Doctrine imposed by FCC. Fairness Doctrine demanded both sides of argument be presented fairly, ect. Court ruled it violated free speech protection, one may present issue biased (Think Fox)
Issue Network Created by complex issues that cross-cut issue areas and form temporary alliances. Not stable like iron triangles. Agreements usually between media, legislative committees, interest groups, lobbies, etc.
Federal Election Commission Administers and enforces the statute that governs the financing of federal elections.
Christian Coalition Ideological interest group. Christian advocacy group founded in 1989. Consist with Christian right or conservatives.
Checkers Speech Address by then Senator Richard Nixon in 1952 where he refuted claims of illegal campaign finance activities. He claims everything was legal and that he was keeping the dog Checkers that was sent to him.
Prohibition Party Political party strongly against sale and consumption of alcohol in the U.S. Part of temperance movement (Prohibition).
Grassroots Party Minor political party against drug prohibition. Was formed in the 1980's.
Yellow Journalism Media containing little to no factual news, choosing instead to promote gossip, scandal and exaggeration to sell more newspapers.
Pansexual Party Minor political party who believes in promoting peace, pleasure, environmental stewardship, etc. Currently has no candidates.
Federalist #10 James Madison didn't believe in political parties. They divided men, inflamed mutual animosity, and made them more concerned with opposing the other side than cooperating on issues.
Libertarian Party Opposes government intervention in economic and social affairs. A large-scale third party - typically more socially left than Democrat, more fiscally right than Republican.
Bolter Party 1912 Teddy Roosevelt separated from mainstream Republican party.
Bull Moose Party aka Progressive Party. Teddy Roosevelt 1912. Main platform was dissolving big business control in politics, limits on campaign contributions, registration of lobbyists, and recording of legislative committee proceedings.
Green Party Minor political party with platform of social justice, grassroots democracy, nonviolence and environmentalism.
Horse Race Elections Elections where media focuses on polling data, public perception not candidate policy, and emphasis on differences not similarities between candidates.
Muckraking Exposing power and corruption of the rich by news media.
Consumer Confidence Index A measure of how confident public is on state of economy. It is based on amount of saving and spending taking place.
Single Issue Party Groups who advocate based on a single issue, such as the National Rifle Association, Sierra Club or Pro-Choice/Pro-Life.
Lobbying Formal, organized attempt to influence legislation usually though direct contact. Congress: Often personal contact, former government officials. Executive: Capture agency like Texas Railroad Commission Judiciary: Amicus Curae briefs, lawsuits, judges.
Grassroots Seeking to rally the publics support for an issue or a cause. Emails, petitions, phone calls, protests, visiting congressmen.
527's Issue groups or partisan groups who are unconnected to the organization but share same interest in public policy issues.
Platform Core issues that are fundamental to political position. Includes: Pro-Life/Pro-Choice, Gun Control/2nd Amendment, Cut social spending/social program funding, etc.
Splinter Party A group that separates from main political party due to failure of big party to represent important issue. Example: Bull Moose. Populist Party pushing for political/economic reform in 1892.
Telecommunication Act Signed by Bill Clinton. Aimed to deregulate converging communications markets. It allowed for media cross-ownership."lets anyone enter any communication business"
Watch dog Media Medias responsibility to the public, dissect candidates, presses them on things they are not doing.
Lap Dog Media Media that lets candidates say whatever they want. Inability of media to press politicians on issues, truth, etc.
Digital Divide Technological gap that exists between younger and older citizens. Young people gets news from online news, social networks; older people read newspapers and watch television news.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act Passed 2002. Aimed to increase role of soft money in a campaign and also prohibit "issue advocacy ads" being paid for by corporations.
Mass Media Elections Polls ?? Polls on elections which often have an impact on how the public views certain candidates and races.
Money swapping The transfer of money from political parties, interest groups and candidates. Often for campaign finance. Questionable ethics.
Literary Digest Measured public opinion Predicted the victories for the 1924, 1928, and 1932 elections.
Push Poll A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion.
Public Opinion Opinions- judgments on current issues Attitudes- broad orientations toward policy areas Values-basic ideals and beliefs
Types of Public Opinion Distribution Skewed, Bi-modal, and Normal
Political Socialization The process by which we learn about politics Ongoing process of acquiring information, beliefs, attitudes and values which help comprehend the working of a political system
Opinion Schemas Broad ways of thinking about politics based on their set of life experiences
What are the Social Variables? Class and Income- Higher income Race and ethnicity Religion Region Gender Age
Describe 3 of the Social Variables Class and Income-higher income Race and ethnicity-Influence both attitudes and behaviors Region-South=deeply conservative Rural areas more conservative
Describe the other 3 Social Varibles Religion-Less religious=more liberal dominate religions are conservative more religious=more conservative Gender- A gap exist with women more supportive of compassion issues Age-Associated with a person’s level of information about political issues
Voter Theorem A proposition predicting that when policy options can be arrayed along a single dimension,majority rule will pick the policy most preferred by the voter whose ideal policy is to the left of half of the voters and to the right of exactly half of the voters
Truman-Dewey During the 1948, polling was stopped to soon which caused Thomas Dewey to be picked Harry Truman. Forecast was wrong!
Sound bites Simple catch slogans that can be easily inserted into the news
Penny Press Cheap, tabloid-style newspaper produced in the 19th century, when mass production of inexpensive newspapers 1st became possible due to the steam-powered printing press. Cost 1 cent.
Adversarial Journalism A form f reporting in which the media adopt a skeptical or even hostile posture toward the government and public officials.
Agenda Setting Specific stories to focus attention on particular issue.
Literacy Test Used to keep people of color -- and, sometimes, poor whites -- from voting, and they were administered at the discretion of the officials in charge of voter registration.
Whites only Primaries A type of election in which only white voters were permitted to vote; non-white voters were not allowed.
What were methods to prevent participation by voting? Literacy Tests, Whites only Primaries, Poll Taxes, and Intimidation
Poll Tax A tax of a fixed amount per person levied on adults and often linked to the right to vote
Voter ID Some states require that the ID presented at the polls must show a photo of the voter.
Power of the Media Entertaining – distinction blurred (SNL) Informative – by region of the country Persuaive – affect public opinion
1965 Voting Rights Act Authorized the federal government to register voters in states that discriminated against minority citizens.
1993 Motor Voter Act Allowed people to register at the Department of the Motor Vehicles when hey applied for a driver's license and at other public facilities.
“Swing States” When campaigning, President's focus on swing states -- because of the winner-take-all system (in all but two states, Nebraska and Maine), candidates tend to downplay states they are sure they will either win or lose.
Goals of Interest Groups To provide a sense of community and security. To contribute to a person's social identity and self- enhancement To help people reinforce their values And to clarify their goals and identify their achievements
Functions of Political Parties Organize the electoral process Represent Groups interests Simplify Political Choice Organize government and policy-making
Characteristics of Nonvoters Not strongly related to gender Southerners vote less than Northerners Class biased Whites vote with greater frequency than members of minority groups
What is the exception to Nonvoters? Blacks with higher leves of income and education vote more than whites with higher levels of income and education. But they are a smaller percentage of the total black population.
Characteristics of Voters Party Affiliation Group Voting Race and Gender Candidate Image The Economy Issue Voting
Electoral College The presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
15th Amendment (1870) "The rights of citizens to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude"
19th Amendment (1920) Gave women the right to vote.
26th Amendment (1971) It established a uniform minimal voting age of 18.
PACS (Political Action Committees) A legal entity formed expressly for the purpose of contributing money to candidates and influencing electoral outcomes.
MALDEF (Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund)Strives to implement programs that are structured to bring Latinos into the mainstream of American political and socio-economic life and provides better educational opportunities.
LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) Advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community-based programs.
NOW (National Organization of Women)Equality of all women. Works to eliminate discrimination and harassment in all other sectors of society etc.
NRA (National Rifle Association) "recognized today as a major political force and as America's foremost defender of Second Amendment rights, the NRA has, since its inception, been the premier firearms education organization in the world."
Common Cause "Dedicated to restoring the core values of American democracy, reinventing an open, honest and accountable government that serves the public interest, and empowering ordinary people to make their voices heard in the political process."
Free Rider A situation where individuals let others work to secure a collective good and then enjoy the benefit without contributing anything to the group effect.
Iron Triangle The stable, cooperative relationship that often develops between a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups.
Buckley v. Valeo Congress limited amount an individual could contribute to a specific candidate, but not what could be spent on their behalf.Personal expenditures are form of free expression. Unconstitutional how much a persons own money could be spent.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission Supreme Court ruled that 1st Amendment prohibited government form restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions.
Mancur Olsen People join interest groups because of the benefits and perks (AARP, NRA, etc)
David Truman Interest groups play stabilizing role in politics
Ross Perot First political infomercial
Theodore Lowi Some interest groups would dominate others
Spiro Agnew VP under Nixon. 2nd Vice Pres to resign. He resigned due to extortion and bribery charges.
Created by: Govt230