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Pulmonary Function

NURS 453 Stack 2

the stmulation of the J receptors leads to this in the breathing rate and this an increase in breathing rate and dyspnea
irritant receptors are located in the epithelium of the conducting airways
conducting airways are the upper airway
irritant receptors are sensitive to noxious stimuli
when stimulated, irritant receptors cause bronchoconstriction, increased ventilator rate, mucus production and cough
hering - breuer inflation reflex is most active in newborns
the function of the h-b reflex is to prevent over inflation of the lungs
hb is also present in adults requiring mechanical ventilation
the hb reflex is regulated by mechanoreceptors in the smooth muscle of the airways
h-b reflex prevents distention of lungs and airways causing decreases in breathing rate and volumes and prolongs the expiratory time
joint and muscle receptors detect movement of the limbs
the joint and muscle receptors signal the inspiratory center to increase breathing rate
inspiration and expiration involve three things major and accessory muscles, elastic properties of the lung tissue and chest wall and resistance to airflow
lung expansion and contraction takes place due to the downward and upward movement of the diaphragm, elevation and depression of the ribs and and increase and decrease of anteroposterior diameter
the decrease of the anteroposterior diameter is a natural passive process
when we inhale the diaphragm moves down
when we exhale, the diaphragm moves up
to inhale, these muscles assist the abdominus rectus push down
if there is an increase in resistance, you may need to do this in order to expire air work harder
to draw air in, the air pressure inside the lungs must drop
when the air pressure drops inside the lungs, lungs expand, contractions of the diaphragm and external intercostals, thoracic cavity expands
when the thoracic cavity expands the pleura and lungs are pulled outward
forced inhalation takes place during some disease processes like asthma
accessory muscles involved in forced inhalation include the sternocleidomastoid, scalene and the pectoralis minor
the sternocleidomastoid muscle elevates the left sternum
the scalene muscle elevates the first two ribs
the pectoralis minor elevates the 3rd - 5th ribs
changes in lung volumes are affected by these two things elasticity of the lungs and elasticity of the chest wall.
the elasticity of the lungs is affected by elastin fibers in the alveolar walls and surface tension at the alveolar air liquid interface
the major contributors to the elasticity of the lungs are the elastin fibers in the alveolar walls
the elasticity of the chest wall results from configuration of the bones and musculature
these disease processes diminish the elasticity of the chest wall kyphoscoliosis and muscle weakness
Elastic recoil pressure is the intrinsic property of a container or lungs to collapse (elasticity) and return to a resting state
Law of LaPlace Within the alveolus, surface tension is an elastic force that is influenced by the size of the alveolus.
An alveolus will have an increased chance to collapse if there is a small radius, there is decreased alveolar expansion
surfactant is a lipoprotein produced by type II alveolar cells
surfactant is produced during the terminal sac phase of embyonic development
Surfactant reverses the effects of the Law of LaPlace by forming a lipid monolayer between surface of the alveoli and air, it lowers surface tension by separating liquid molecules
the decrease in surface tension from surfactant maintains alveoli free of fluid and prevents alveolar collapse
compliance is a measure of a measure of lung and chest wall distensibility
compliance is the reciprocal of elasticity
the pathological state with increased compliance means that the lungs are easy to inflate and have lose elastic recoil pressure - obstructive lung diseases, COPD
the pathological state with decreased compliance means that lungs are stiffened and difficult to inflate related to increased elastic recoil pressure, ARDS, pneumonia, lungs collapsing on self.
elasticity is equal to recoil
the work of breathing is normally very low
if work of breathing is increased, that means that one of the following or all are occuring decrease in lung compliance (increase in recall), decrease in chest wall compliance, increase in airway obstruction (increase in resistance), decrease in surfactant
if the work of breathing has increased it contributes to dyspnea and SOB
Created by: jonquil