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Nutrition

Ch 5

TermDefinition
lipids fats
satiety feeling of satisfaction; fullness
visible fats fats in foods that are purchased and used as fats, such as butter or margarine
invisible fats fats that are not immediately noticeable such as those in egg yolk, cheese, cream, and salad dressings
triglycerides three fatty acids attached to a framework of glycerol
glycerol a component of fat; derived from a water-soluble carbohydrate
fatty acids a component of fat that determines the classification of the fat
linoleic acid and linolenic acid fatty acid essential for humans; cannot be synthesized by the body
saturated fats fats whose carbon atoms contain all of the hydrogen atoms they can; considered a contributory factor in atherosclerosis
monounsaturated fats fats that are neither saturated nor polyunsaturated and are thought to play little part in atherosclerosis
polyunsaturated fats fats whose carbon atoms contain only limited amounts of hydrogen
omega-3 fatty acids helps lower the risk of heart disease
trans-fatty acids (TFA's) produced by adding hydrogen atoms to a liquid fat, making it solid.
hydrogenation the combining of fat with hydrogen, thereby making it a saturated fat and solid at room temperature
cholesterol fatlike substance that is a constituent of body cells; is synthesized in the liver; also available in animal foods
hypercholesterolemia unusually high levels of cholesterol in blood; also known as high serum cholesterol
plaque fatty deposit on interior of artery walls
lipoproteins carriers of fat in the blood
chylomicrons the largest lipoprotein; transport the lipids after digestion into the body
very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) lipoproteins made by the liver to transport lipids throughout the body
low density lipoproteins (LDLs) carry blood cholesterol to the cells
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from cells to the liver for eventual excretion
lecithin fatty substance found in plant and animal foods, a natural emulsifier that helps transport fats in the bloodstream; used commercially to make food products smooth
Each gram of fat contains how many calories? 9
Plant food sources for fats? oils and margarine, nuts, avocados, coconut
Monounsaturated fats should be what percent of total daily calories? 20
Major sources of trans fatty acids? baked goods, restaurant foods
essential for synthesis of bile, sex hormones, cortisone, and vitamin D cholesterol
do not exceed daily cholesterol intake of how many milligrams? 300
chemical digestion of fats occurs mainly in? small intestine
What emulsifies fats? Bile
Protein combines with final products of fat digestion to form ? lipoproteins
Increase HDLs by: exercising, maintaining desirable weight, giving up smoking
Deficiency symptoms occur when fats provide less than ? percent of total daily calories 10
Created by: heylee34