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Live Sound Exam

Study for Live Sound Midterm/Final

What should be on a stage plot? Date, name of the band, contact info for personnel, dimensions, inputs, monitor wedges, power drops.
What is the range of human hearing? 20Hz to 20kHz
What is Hertz? A measurement of frequency
What does PFL stand for and how does it work? Pre-Fader Listen, routs the input to the mains meter and the headphone amp.
Describe the function of a preamp To amplify the signal to line level, or a level we can work with.
Describe the function of a poweramp Amplifies the electrical signal from the desk to speaker level.
What is the difference between active and passive speaker? Active speaker has a built in poweramp, passive speaker requires connection to a poweramp.
What is the difference between an active and passive crossover? Passive crossover is built into a speaker and does not allow you to control it. Active crossover allows more control as it is connected to the speaker.
What is the difference between mic and line level? mic level is very low, line level is much higher. Line level is the standard level for consumer and pro audio.
What is the function of a pad? A pad attenuates the input level of a mic or channel
What is a high pass filter and on which inputs are you most and least likely to use it? High pass filter allows high frequencies through, while cutting lows. Most likely to use on vocals, guitars, overheads, etc. Least likely to use on kick drum, bass guitar, etc.
What is phase and why is it important? Phase describes the position of one sound wave in relation to another. It is important because phase can cause boost or cancellation of sound.
Name 3 components of a live sound system's drive rack 31 band graphic EQ, stereo compressor, crossover
What are the 2 most common uses for aux sends? Effects sends and monitors
Explain the difference between pre and post fader in relation to aux sends pre-fader sends the signal without being affected by the channel's fader level, post-fader sends the signal after the channel's fader level has been set.
When mixing monitors from foh desk, should the sends be post or pre fader Pre-fader
When using foh and monitor desk, which piece of equipment required to enable each systems engineer discreet control of the inputs Signal splitter
Define transducer and name the 2 primary transducers in live sound A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another form of energy. 2 primary transducers and mics and speakers.
Name 6 components of a live sound reinforcement PA system microphone, preamp, mixing console, crossover, poweramp, speakers
Trace the signal path in a pro PA system from mic to speaker input, preamp, mixing console, crossover, poweramp, speaker
What is feedback and why does it occur? Feedback is a return of the output signal from a device into the input of the same device. It occurs when a mic is in a speaker's dispersion zone.
Name 2 reasons for proper gain structure To eliminate unwanted noise and to stop clipping and unwanted distortion.
When eqing in a live sound environment, what are the 2 rules start flat, cuts not boosts
How does speaker placement affect gain before feedback distance allows more gain before feedback
What are the 2 primary differences between an sm58 and a beta sm58 frequency response is different, beta is brighter. Beta is more sensitive than the 58.
What does it mean when a system is bi or tri amped bi amp means using separate amplifiers to amplify different frequencies. I.e. 1 amp for sub, 1 amp for mid-high. Tri amped separates to 3 amps, high, mid, low.
What is the typical crossover point for 1 speaker top 2kHz
Explain and give examples of balanced and unbalanced cables Balanced runs the length of the cable with 2 signals out of phase, then flips the phase at the end of the cable. This makes the original intended signal in phase and any unwanted noise is then out of phase. Balanced - xlr , unbalanced - 1/4in guitar cable
Name 5 jobs in the concert production industry and explain the responsibilities of each FOH engineer, state manager, lighting engineer, runner, security
Name a pro sound industry news website prosoundnetwork.com
Walk me through each step for setting level on an input and sending to the mains pa 1. Pfl button, 2. Set pre-amp gain (insert pad if needed), 3. De-select pfl and unmute channel. 4. Select output, 5. slowly bring up the fader until you hear it. (Add filters and eq if needed)
What is the proper sequence for powering up and down amps on last and off first
As the sound system tech, how do you prepare for the artists arrival set it up, test every component of the system to ensure it is working and hooked up correctly.
What does +48v symbolize phantom power
List and explain the 2 most important parameters of a compressor threshold, the point at which compression begins, ratio, how hard the signal is compressed.
What does a compressor do reduces dynamic range
What is the difference between compressing and limiting compressor lets signal pass threshold at a reduced rate, limiter stops signal at threshold. Compressor allows the signal to keep some character while reducing dynamic range.
Explain the 2 primary parameters of a digital delay delay time, the time between each repeat, feedback, number of repeats
Name and define the 3 standard power amp input mode parallel, y's the input - one input distributes to 2 outputs, bridge, equate with mono - double the power, stereo, splits the amp 2in 2out.
How fast is the speed of sound 1130 feet per second
What is amplitude loudness
Explain direct vs reflected sound direct comes straight from source, reflected is heard as an echo from another surface
What is the function of a crossover? It is a frequency dividing network
Name the 5 colors of a 3 phase power system, what do they represent? Green: Ground White: Neutral Red: Hot Black: Hot Blue: Hot
In what order should a 3 phase power system be connected and disconnected? Connected: green and white first, then hot. Disconnected: Hot first, then green and white.
How do balanced cables work to reject noise? Common mode rejection
What is a splitter's main purpose? It splits the signal into 2 so it can be controlled separately. Its main purpose is to enable FOH engineer and monitor engineer discreet control over the mix.
What is a cue wedge, what is its main purpose? A cue wedge allows the monitor engineer to hear exactly what is playing in each monitor mix. It is a monitor wedge that is placed at the monitor engineer's system.
What is the standard first input on a channel list? Kick drum
Where is upstage, downstage, stage right, stage left? Stage R&L is right and left when you are standing on the stage looking at the audience. Downstage is closest to the audience, upstage is closest to the back of the stage.
What is the difference between inserted and in-line processing in a signal path? Insert is inserting right into the channel strip. The signal leaves and returns to the same place. In-line is sending the signal to the processor, but it returns to a different place, or doesnt return.
Which processor is inserted on any conventional stage monitor mix? graphic eq
What are the 4 required components of any avid venue system? - Control surface - Software (D-Show) - I/O and A/D converter - DSP (computer)
Which system houses all 4 of the necessary components in 1 unit? SC48
What are the 2 primary modes in the D-Show software? What is the difference? Show mode and config mode. Show mode does not allow you to make any changes that will interrupt the audio.
Which downstage vocal would be the first vocal input in a festival style input list? Downstage right vocal
Which side of the stage does the left side of the PA go on? Stage right
What are the 3 things a wireless mic requires that a wired mic does not? - Batteries - Transmitter - Receiver - More gain stages **Should make sure the channels in the transmitter and receiver match and are different from any other transmitter/receiver combo in use. Transmitter gain should be set to lowest sensitivity.
What is a powered mixer? It has a built in power amp
What outputs of the powered mixer would you feed to a powered speaker? Line outputs
What does a transducer do? Converts one form of energy to another
Name and define 3 common mic polar patterns Omni, sensitive in all directions Cardioid, most sensitive at the front, good rear rejection Figure 8, sensitive equally at the front and back, good side rejection
What is an industry standard vocal mic? SM58
How many different amp outputs can be dispersed with a 2 conductor speaker cable? 1
What is the difference between pre and post fader? Pre-fader sends the signal unaffected by the position of the fader. Post-fader signal is affected by the fader position.
What does a crossover do? It splits the full range of sound into separate frequency bands
What is the difference between an active and passive crossover? Active crossover allows discreet control over the crossover points, passive is built in, so does not allow control.
How are the conductors named in an NL4? positive and negative 1, positive and negative 2
Where do you leave the cable slack? At the mic or speaker
Created by: aidanrv