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Chapter 4

ketones substances to which fatty acids are broken down in the liver
ketoacidosis condition in which ketones collect in the blood, caused by insufficient glucose available for energy
monosaccharides simplest carbohydrates, sugars that cannot be further reduced by hydrolysis; examples are glucose, fructose, and galactose
glucose the simple sugar to which carbohydrate must be broken down for absorption; also known as dextrose
fructose the simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is found in fruit and honey
galactose the simple sugar (monosaccharide) to which lactose is broken down during digestion
disaccharides double sugars that are reduced by hydrolysis to monosaccharides; examples are sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
sucrose a double sugar or disaccharide; examples are granulated, powdered, and brown sugar.
maltose the double sugar (disaccharide) occurring as a result of the digestion of grain
lactose the sugar in milk; a disaccharide
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates containing combinations of monosaccharides; examples include starch, dextrin, cellulose, and glycogen
starch polysaccharide found in grains and vegetables
endosperm the inner part of the kernel of grain; contains the carbohydrate; contains starch, protein, some B vitamins
bran outer covering of grain kernels; contains minerals, B vitamins, cellulose, protein
germ embryo or tiny life center of each kernel of grain, contains protein, fat, minerals, B vitamins, vitamin E
glycogen glucose as stored in the liver and muscles; also known as animal starch
glucagon hormone from alpha cells of the pancreas; helps cells release energy
dietary fiber indigestible parts of plants; absorbs water in large intestine, helping to create soft, bulky stool; some is believed to bind cholesterol in the colon, helping to rid cholesterol from the body; some is believed to lower blood glucose levels
cellulose indigestible carbohydrate; provides fiber in the diet
hemicellulose dietary fiber found in whole grains
lignins dietary fiber found in the woody parts of vegetables such as carrots and asparagus
pectin edible thickening agent
mucilage gel forming dietary fiber
flatulence gas in the intestinal tract
insulin secretion of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas gland; essential for the proper metabolism of glucose
islets of Langerhans part of the pancreas from which insulin is secreted
hyperglycemia excessive amounts of glucose in the blood
normal blood glucose level 70-110 mg/dl
hypoglycemia subnormal levels of blood glucose
whey liquid part of milk that separates from the curd (solid part) during the making of hard cheese.
each gram of carbohydrate provides how many calories? 4
lack of adequate carbohydrate intake can result in? ketoacidosis
Recommended intake of fiber? 20 - 35 g per day
principal sources of carbohydrates? plant foods such as sereal grains, vegetables, fruits, sugars
what is the only fuel used by central nervous system, red blood cells, and the brain? glucose
Fructose is also known as ? levulose
Galactose is a product of the digestion of? milk
Weight loss and fatigue can result from diet deficient in? carbohydrates
Half of daily requirement of calories should come from? carbohydrates
Functions of carbohydrates spare protien, maintain normal fat metabolism, provide fiber, main energy source
Created by: heylee34