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Genki II Lesson 14 G

Genki II Lesson 14 Grammar

words for giving あげる and くれる
words for giving, which one to use (((I ) You ) Others ). When a thing moves toward the center, use くれる. Away, use あげる.
words for giving, which one to use 2, あげる I give to you. You give to others. I give to others. Somebody gives to somebody else.
words for giving, which one to use 2, くれる Somebody gives me. You give me. Somebody gives you.
words for giving, sentence construction Giver is subject, followed by は or が. Recipient is followed by に.
(example) I will give the woman flowers. 私はその女の人にはなをあげます。
(example) The woman gave the man a watch. その女の人は男の人にとけいをあげました。
(example) My parents may give me a new car. りょうしんが(私に)新しい車をくれるかもしれません。
words for giving, sentence construction, general form (giver) は/が (recipient) に{あげる or くれる} (giver) gives to (recipient)
words for giving, the word for receiving "Transactions ... described [by] ... くれる can also be described in terms of 'receiving' or もらう."
words for giving, the word for receiving, sentence construction recipient is subject followed by は or が. Giver followed by に or から.
(example) I received an old dictionary from my big sister. 私はあねに/あねから古いじしょをもらいました。
words for giving, the word for receiving, sentence construction, general form (recipient) は/が (giver) に/から もらう (recipient) receives from (giver)
words for (example) My big sister gave me an old dictionary. あねが私に古いじしょをくれました。 (Note the particle switch.)
words for giving, くれる for people other than yourself, part 1 "When a transaction takes place between two people other than yourself, as in this example, the verb to use is normally あげる. くれる is possible only in limited conexts in which you think you yourself have benefited because somebody very close to you . . ."
words for giving, くれる for people other than yourself, part 2 ". . . has received something. It should be relatively easy for you to identify yourself with a member of your immediate family or a very good friend, for example."
The President gave my little sister a letter. だいとうりょうがいもうとに手紙をくれました。
words for giving, もらう, extra info もらう is like くれる and implies that you identify yourself more closely with the recipient than with the giver. Thus it is wrong to use もらう if you receive from me, for example. (It is one indication that nobody can be detached from their ego.)
(example of unacceptable construction) Did you receive a letter from me? (Unacceptable construction) (あなたは)私から手紙をもらいましたか。
words for giving, もらう, extra info 2 "You can use もらう for third-party transactions if you can assume the perspective of the recipient.
(example) My little sister received a letter from the President. いもうとはだいとうりょうに手紙をもらいました。
offering advice or recommendation use た form of verb and turn it into たらどうですか.
offering advice or recommendation, casual speech shorten たらどうですか to たらどう or たら.
(example) How about studying more? もっと勉強したらどうですか。
(example) How about taking some medicine? くすりを飲んだらどうですか。
offering advice or recommendation, social context "たらどうですか may sometimes have a critical tone, criticizing the person for not having performed the activity already. It is, therefore, safer not to use it unless you have been tapped for consultation."
offering advice or recommendation, caution don't invite with たらどうですか. Use ませんか.
as many as add も to the end of a number word.
(example) My mother owns three, count them, three cats. 私の母はねこを三びきもかっています。
(example) As many as twenty students showed up at the party yesterday. きのうのパーティーには学生が二十人も来ました。
as few as or only add しか to the end of a number word and turn the predicate into the negative. (negative verb conjugation)
(example) I have only one Japanese dictionary. 私は日本語のじしょをいっさつしか持っていません。
(example) There are only two computers in this company. この会社にはパソコンがにだいしかありません。
Created by: ncommons



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