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NUR 100 Bio/Environm

the immune system body's major defense mechanism against infections, abnormal & damaged cells, bacteria, fungi, viruses & parasites
immune system consists of complex networks of specialized tissues, cells and organs
immune system's goal protect body by seeking & destroying damaged cells but preserving host
immune system is activated by minor and major injuries, allergic reactions
1st phase of innate response vascular
2nd phase of innate response cellular
adaptive immune responses cell mediated and antibody
leukocytes WBC's-released from bone marrow
leukopenia decreased # of WBC count
leukocytosis increased # of WBC count
granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells mediators of immunity, recognize foreign matters & initiate immune response
lymphocytes regulator of specific immune responses-t cells, B cells, NK cells
antigens invaders, provoke specific immune response
antibodies bind with antigens to deactivate them
5 types of antibodies IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
lymph via lymph nodes
T cells become mature in thymus gland
B cells become mature in bone marrow
T lympocytes mature into Helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, or memory cells
cell mediated immune response lymphocytes make Helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells & NK cells to deactivate the antigen
innate immune response 1st line of defense, nonspecific
vascular response state 1 of innate response. blood vessels constrict then capillary arterioles allow fluid flow, swelling, drainage
vascular response aids in invading bacteria gets trapped in fibrin threads
phagocytosis cells eating other cells
debridement removal of dead tissue to promote healing
reconstruction cells repair themselves
adaptive immune response at initial exposure to antigen, body develops memory and plan against specific antigen
antibody mediated driven by B cells which contact antigen and create antibody producing plasma and memory cells
immunoglobulin antibody Ig-bind and inactivate specific antigens
B cells + antigen antibody producing plasma cells and memory cells
cell mediated for sleeper cells that are hidden, initiated by T cells, cell mediated has memory, additional exposures are treated more effectively and quickly
types of cell mediated killer T cells and Helper T cells
active immunity body produces antibodies against specific antigens, naturally or artificially obtained
passive immunity short term, mother to baby
natural immunity obtained by infection resulting in antibodies
artificial immunity obtained by immunizations
diagnostics serum protein, protein electrophoresis, antibody testing, skin testing
vaccination suspensions of bacteria or viruses, nonpathogenic
microorganisms bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
virulent microorganism's ability to cause disease
pathogens virulent organisms rarely found in absence of disease
infections occur when pathogen is able to multiply within the host
initial stage incubation period, pathogen begins replication
prodromal stage manifestations appear-symptoms
acute stage pathogen proliferate and disseminate rapidly, byproducts released
convalescent stage infection contained and pathogen is eliminated
nosocomial infection infection obtained in healthcare setting
white blood cell count WBC's
standard isolation hand washing, gloves-treat everyone as if infected
contact isolation hand washing, gloves, gown-anything touchable and transferrable to other pts
droplet isolation hand washing, gloves, mask, gown, goggles-protect you as well as other patients and infected patient
airborne isolation hand washing, gloves, gown, goggles, negative air flow room, N95 mask
Created by: cjanicek7842