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Enviro. 5

Ecosystem diversity the variety of ecosystems within a given region.
Species Diversity How many species are there?
Genetic Diversity different assortment of genes
Species richness the number of species in a given area
Species evenness the measure of whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or are all represented by similar numbers of individuals; i.e., the distribution.
Evolution how the genetic composition of a species changes over time.
Microevolution evolution below the species level
Macroevolution Evolution that gives rise to new species or larger groups, such as new genera, family, class, or phyla.
Genes physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism; the genetic code.
Genotype the complete set of genes in an individual. All the genes within an organism are also collectively called the genome.
Phenotype the set of traits actually physically or biochemically expressed in an individual.
Mutation a random change in the genetic code. Can add variation
Evolution by artificial selection when humans determine which individuals breed. (For example, the more than 400 modern breeds of dogs or 800 breeds of domestic cattle.) Or through unintended consequences, such as weed killers and antibiotics.
Evolution by natural selection the environment determines which individuals are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection Individuals produce an excess of offspring.Not all can survive.Individuals differ in traits.Differences in traits can be passed on from parents to offspring.Differences in traits are associated with differences in the ability to survive and reproduce.
Point one of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Individuals vary
Point two of Darwin's theory of evolution some of this variation is inherited
Point three of Darwin's theory of evolution Some inherited variation confers advantages on the individual such as making them faster, stronger, smarter, or otherwise better adapted to survive.
Point four of Darwin's Theory of evolution Those individuals who are better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their inherited advantage.
Point five of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Individuals who successfully reproduce transmit forms of their specific genes to the next generation, and offspring will benefit from the advantage offered by the genes. Over generations, these genes will become much more frequently found in the species.
Genetic Drift change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating.
Bottleneck Effect a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in number of organisms.
Founder Effect a change in a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals.
Allopatric speciation new species are created by geographic or reproductive isolation.
Symmetric speciation volution of one species into two species in the absence of geographic isolation, usually through polyploidy
Polyploidy which is an increase in the number of sets of chromosomes.
The rate at which a species evolves 1. The rate of environmental change (its “niche”). 2. The amount of genetic variation in the species. 3. The size of the population involved. 4. How fast the species reproduces (generation time).
Realized niche the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species lives. This determines the species distribution, or areas of the world where it lives
Niche generalist species that can live under a wide range of conditions.
Niche specialist species that live only in specific habitats.
Created by: abuontempo