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glucagon A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels;an antagonistic hormone to insulin
glucose tolerance test a test of the body's ability to metabolize glucose that involves the administration of a measured dose of glucose to the fasting stomach and the determination of blood glucose levels in the blood or urine at intervals thereafter, used to detect diabetes.
homeostasis the maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions(as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions.
hormone a product of living cells that circulates in blood and produces a specific, often stimulator, effect on the activity of cells that are often far from the source of the hormone
insulin a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that is essential fort the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood
negative feedback a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation
positive feedback feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output
type 1 diabetes diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels
type 2 diabetes diabetes of a form that develops especially in adults and most often obese individuals and that is characterized by high blood glucose resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body's inability to compensate.
adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) A compound composed of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis.
amino acid an organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins
calorie the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C also the amount of heat energy that 1g of water releases when it cools by 1C. The Calorie usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie.
carbohydrate a sugar in the form of a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or polysaccharide
chemical bond an attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound
chemical indicator a substance used to show visually usually by it's capacity for color change,the condition of a solution with respect to the presence of free acid or alkali or some other substance
chemical reaction chemical transformation of change; the interaction of chemical entities
compound a substance consisting of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
covalent bond a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
dehydration synthesis a chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule
disaccharide a double sugar molecule made of two mono- saccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis
element the smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
glucose a monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar
homeostasis the maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions
hydrolysis a chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water
ionic bond a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
lipid one of a family of compounds including fats, phospholipids, and steroids that is insoluble in water
macromolecule a type of giant molecule formed by joining smaller molecules which includes proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids.
molecule 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
monomer the submit that serves as the building block of a polymer
monosaccharide a single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar
hemoglobin A1c a test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood as a means of determining the average blood sugar concentrations fro the preceding two or three months
hyperglycemia an excess of sugar in the blood
hypertonic in comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration
hypoglycemia abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood
hypotonic in comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a lower solute concentration
isotonic having the same solute
osmosis the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
solute a substance that is dissolved in a solution
solution a liquid that is homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent the dissolving agent of a solution. water is the most versatile solvent known.
Created by: amselaan