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Nur 100 bio/environmental

The immune system the body's major defense mechanism against infections, abnormal and damaged cells; bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites
the immune system consists of complex intricate network of specialized tissues, cells and organs
the immune system's goal to protect the body by seeking and destroying damaged cells while preserving the host
the immune system is activated by major and minor injuries
an innate immune response is vascular,cellular and healing
an adaptive immune response is antibody and cell mediated
leukocytes WBC's released from bone marrow
leukopenia the decrease in WBC numbers
leukocytosis the increase in WBC numbers
granulocytes neutrophils, esinophils and basophils
monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells are mediators of immunity, recognized foreign matter and initiate immune response
lymphocytes principal effector and regulator of specific immune response, T cells, B cells and NK cells
antigens invaders, provoke a specific immune response
antibodies bind with antigens and deactivate them
5 types of antibodies IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
lymph via lymph nodes
T cells become mature in the thymus gland
B cells become mature in the bone marrow
T lymphocytes mature into Helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, or memory T cells
Memory cells are responsible for providing acquired immunity
cell mediated immune response lymphocytes themselves make helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells to deactivate the antigen
innate immune response first line of defense; non-specific (skin and mucosal barriers, vascular and cellular responses and phagocytosis)
vascular response stage one; local blood vessels briefly constrict, vasodilation of capillary arterioles and venules allow inflow of fluid, fluid accumulates and swelling ensues, and drainage
vascular response aids in localized invading bacteria and keeps them form spreading by trapping them in the fibrin threads
phagocytosis the eating of one cell by another cell
debridement when the cells are removing exudate from the cellular response stage, this sets the wound up for healing
reconstruction when the cells begin to repair themselves, their goal is to end with resolution because some cells can regenerate themselves while others cannot
adaptive immune response due to an initial exposure to an antigen, the body develops a memory and a plan against this antigen
antibody mediated driven by B cells, B cells contact antigen and create antibody producing plasma cells and memory cells
immunoglobulin antibody Ig; theses antibodies bind and inactivate specific antigens
B cells + antigen = antibody producing plasma cells and memory cells
cell mediated for sleeper cells that are hidden, initiated by T cells, cell mediated has a memory, additional exposures are treated quicker and more effectively
two types of cell mediated killer T cells and Helper T cells
active immunity body produces antibodies or develops immune lymphocytes against specific antigens; it can be naturally or artificially obtained
passive immunity provides temporary protection against disease producing agents, protection is gradually lost, passive immunity can be naturally or artificially obtained
natural immunity obtained by infection resulting in antibodies or transfer from mom to baby
artificial immunity obtained by immunization with antigen or administration of antibodies in Ig
diagnostics serum protein, protein electrophoresis, antibody testing, skin testing
vaccination suspensions of whole or fractioned bacteria or viruses, nopathogenic
microorganisms bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
virulent ability to cause disease
pathogens are virulent organisms rarely found in the absence of disease
infections happen when pathogen is able to multiply within the host
initial stage of infection incubation period, pathogen begins to rplicate but no manifestations
prodromal stage of infection manifestations begin to appear
acute stage of infection pathogen proliferate and disseminate rapidly, toxic by products released
convalescent stage of infection ins contained and pathogen is eliminated
nosocomial infections acquired in health care setting, prevention is most important measure for control, wash your hands, patients are very susceptible. examples; MRSA,C-diff, and VRE
white blood cell count WBC
WBC with dif white blood cell count with differential
CTpr ProCalcitonin
standard isolation hand washing and gloves; treat everyone as if they have something
contact isolation hand washing, gloves, gown; anything that you could touch or take to another patient
droplet isolation hand washing, gloves, gown, mask, goggles; protect your from them as well as your other patients
airborne isolation hand washing, gloves, gown, N95 mask, goggles, negative air flow room
Created by: katpeterson
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