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Janssen Biochem

Mrs. Janssen's Chapter 2 Anatomy Test (Biochemistry)

QuestionAnswer
Which element is found primarily in proteins and nucleic acids? nitrogen
If an element has 3 isotopes, which is most likely to be radioactive? the heaviest
Chemical behavior results from interactions of what? electrons
Which ion do acids release? hydrogen
Which ion do bases release? hydroxide (OH)
Where are electrons found? valence shells
How are ionic bonds formed? transfer of electrons
How are covalent bonds formed? sharing of electrons
What do acids taste like? sour
What do bases taste like? bitter
What are the two most plentiful salts in the human body? Ca & P
What percent of organic matter in the body is protein? 50%
What is the most abundant protein in the human body? collagen
What molecule forms the backbone of neutral fats and phospholipids? glycerol
Which type of group makes a phospholipid different from a neutral fat? phosphorus
Which functional proteins act as biological catalysts? enzymes
What is the single most important type of steroid in the body? cholesterol
Which sugar is a building block of carbohydrates? monosacchride
Which pH reading is neutral? 7
All organic molecules have this element in them. C (carbon)
How many sugars are in a monosaccharide? 1
How many sugars are in a disaccharide? 2
How many sugars are in a polysaccharide? greater than 2
Which protein base is not found in DNA? uracil
Which protein base is not found in RNA? thymine
What do electrolytes do for the body? conduct electricity
What are the 2 main categories of proteins? fibrous & globular
Neutral fats are also known as what? triglycerides
To permanently change or inactivate a protein. denature
Building block of proteins. amino acids
Chemical that resists pH changes. buffer
Catalysts that speed up chemical reactions enzymes
The molecule that carries energy in a cell. ATP
Molecules that store genetic information. nucleic acid
Lipid composed of glycerol & 3 fatty acids. neutral fat
Glucose polymer, storage form for glucose. glycogen
Lipid in cell membranes, steroids made from this. cholesterol
Class of molecules that includes neutral fats & steroids. lipids
Large molecule formed from amino acid chains. protein
Weak bond due to attraction between H+ charges. hydrogen bonds
Any molecule with the formula Cn(H2O)n. carbohydrate
Component of cell membranes, has hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail phospholipid
Water “loving.” hydrophilic
Water “fearing.” hydrophobic
Fatty acid whose carbons have the maximum # of hydrogens attached with single bonds. saturated
Fatty acid whose carbons have some double bonds. unsaturated
Compounds that generally have carbon in them. organic
Compounds that do not have carbon in them. inorganic
Reaction in which separate molecules are put together into one compound. synthesis
Reaction in which a compound is broken down into separate molecules. decomposition
Process of spontaneous decay that results in an atom becoming more stable. radioactivity
What is a 6-carbon sugar that forms a 6-point ring and is used as an energy source for cells? glucose
What is a lipid that is composed of glycerol and joined to 3 fatty acids? Neutral fat
This class of molecules includes neutral fats and steroids. lipids
What is a large organic molecule formed from a chain of amino acids? proteins
What is a fatty acid that has all single bonds called? saturated fat
What is a chemical that resists changes in pH? buffer
What forms between two amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis? Peptide bond
What is the process that creates a bond between two atoms by taking OH from one and H from the other? Dehydration synthesis
What kind of fatty acid has a kink in it due to at least one double bond between carbons? Unsaturated fat
What process breaks a bond between two atoms by adding OH to one atom and H to the other? Hydrolysis
What is a polymer of glucose that is used as a storage form for glucose in animals? glycogen
Created by: jjanssen33