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integumentary system

Integumentary system "covering" 2 regions
2 regions of integumentary system 1. epidermis 2. dermis
epidermis epithelial cells outer most shield avascular+ innervated gets nutrients from dermis by diffusion
Dermis much thicker and tougher. made of fibrous conn. tissue vascularized
Hypodermis( Superficial Facia) deep to the skin. contains fat/adipose tissue and some areolar stores fat and anchors to muscle and allows skin to slide shock absorber, contains unwanted fat.
epidermis keratinized strat. squamos -4 cell types -4~5 layers
4 cells of epidermis 1.keratinocytes 2.melanocytes 3.langerhan 4.merkel
Keratinocytes -most numerous. makes keratin -increased in areas with more friction(hands/feet) -tightly bound by desmosomes -highly mitotic(dividing) -cells dead at surface -24-45 day life span
melanocytes -makes melanin -make colored pigment in deepest epidermis -spidershaped. arims that touch every keratinocyte in basal layer -melanin travels to top layer..protects from uv rays
langerhan's cells -rise from bone marrow. move to epidermis -asters go around keratinocytes -phagocytes that take in foreign substances& help activate immune system
Merkel Cell -spiky hemisphere shape -in epidermal with dermal junction each is connected to a sensory disclike nerve called merkel disc.
Merkel disc senses touch
Layers of Epidermis 4-5 layers -5 in thicker skin areas s=stratum s. Basale s. Cornuem s. lucidem s. spinosum s. granulosum
s. basale (bottom layer) deepest, attached to the dermis -single layer of cells. has youngest keratinocytes -germinating layer(growing) -highly mitotic -aka. Stratum germinativum -high # of melanocytes(10-25% of layer)
Stratum Germinativum s. basale
s. Spinosum -7 cell layers thick -contain weblike system~ Intermediate filaments -prickly name from shrinking due to diminishing nutrients yet maintains desmosomes -langerhan's cells most abundent
Intermediate Filaments tension resisting bundle of keratin. - in stratum spinosum
s. Granulosum (granular layer) -cells flattened, nuclie disappear& accumulate - has 2 granules -cells die above this layer
Granules in s. Granulosum !. keratohyaline- keratin aggregation 2. lamellated granules- water proof glycolipids. "plated"
S. lucidem -"clear layer" -only present in thick skin -thin translucent layer -flattened keratinocytes -keratohyaline attaching to keratin
s. coreum -horny layer -75% of epidermis -20-30 cell layers thick mostly dead calls -aids in avoiding abrasions -dandruff comes from this -average person will shed 40 lbs/lifetime
Created by: britsiaj
 

 



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