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Professional Nursing

Skeletal System: the framework of bones, the joints between them and cartilage that protects our organs.
Muscular System: 3 types of muscles: skeletal, cardiac and smooth or visceral muscles. (Motion, Maintenance of posture, Heat production)
Nervous System: the skeletal and muscular systems cannot produce purposeful movement without a functioning nervous system. Nerve impulses stimulate muscles to contract.
Long Bones: found in the upper and lower extremities contribute to height and length.
Short Bones: located in the wrist and ankle contribute to movement.
Flat Bones: (ribs, skull) are thin and contribute to shape.
Irregular Bones: are all the remaining bones not included in the above classifications (e.g., jaw and spinal column).
Ball and Socket: (joint) rounded head of bone fits into cuplike cavity of the other. Flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation occur (i.e. hip and shoulder).
Condyloid: (joint) oval head of one bone fits into the shallow cavity of another bone; flexion-extension and abduction-adduction occur (i.e.wrist)
Gliding: (joint) Articular surfaces are flat; flexion-extension and abduction-adduction occur (i.e. carpal bones of wrist and tarsal of feet)
Hinge: (joint) a spool-like surface of one of the bones fits into a concave surface of another; only flexion-extension occurs (i.e. elbow, knee and ankle)
Pivot: (joint) a ringlike structure that turns on a pivot; movement is limited to rotation (i.e. joints between the atlas and axis and between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna)
Saddle: (joint) bone surfaces are convex on one side and concave on the other; movements are side to side and back to forth (i.e. joint between the trapezium and metacarpal of the thumb)
Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body.
Adduction: movement toward the midline of the body.
Circumduction: movement of distal part of the limb in circular motion (i.e. move outstretched leg in a circle).
Flexion: is the state of being bent.
Extension: straight line.
Hyperextension: exaggerated extension.
Dorsiflexion: backward bending of hand or foot.
Plantar flexion: flexion of foot.
Rotation: turning on an axis.
Internal Rotation: turning on its axis toward the midline of the body.
External Rotation: turning on its axis away from the midline of the body.
Supination: Laying on their back.
Pronation: Laying on their abdomen.
Inversion: movement of the sole of your foot inward.
Eversion: movement of the sole of your foot outward.
Body Alignment or Posture: A person in correct alignment is experiencing no undue strain on the joints, muscles, tendons, or ligaments while balance is maintained.
Balance: Body balance increases when individuals spread the feet farther apart, thereby broadening the base of support, and flex the hips and knees, thus lowering the center of gravity.
Coordinated Body Movement: Nurses lift, carry, push, pull, and move objects and people in the course of their work.
Postural Reflexes: the sustained contraction of select skeletal muscles that keeps the human body in an upright position against the force of gravity
Labyrinthine senses: this sense of position and movement is provided by the sensory organs in the inner ear.
Proprioceptor or kinesthetic sense: this informs the brain of the location of a limb or body part as a result of joint movements stimulating special nerve endings in muscles, tendons, and fascia.
Visual or optic reflexes: Visual impressions contribute to posture by alerting the person to spatial relationships with the environment.
Extensor or stretch reflexes: When extensor muscles are stretched beyond a certain point (when knees buckle under), their stimulation cause a reflex contraction that aids a person to reestablish erect posture.
Orthopedics: Refer to the correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion.
Tonus: the state of slight contraction – usual state of skeletal muscle. (pt on complete bed rest is in danger of losing muscle tonus).
Contractures: permanent contractions of a muscle. (from prolonged bedrest – if pt does not have exercise and joint motion and if good posture is not maintained).
Factors Affecting Body Alignment and Mobility: Developmental considerations, Physical health, Mental health, Lifestyle, Attitude and values, Fatigue and stress, External factors
Developmental Consideration: A person’s age and degree of neuromuscular development markedly influence body proportions, posture, body mass, movements and reflexes.
Physical Health: acute and chronic health problems.
Mental Health: body processes slow down with depression.
Lifestyle: active or sedentary.
Attitude and Values: if taught to exercise, the they will value exercise.
Fatigue and Stress: depletes energy.
External Factors: a brisk, clear day is invigorating and invites increased activity. Unsafe neighborhoods, lack of free time and lack of support can discourage activity.
Isotonic: ADLs. Independently performing range of motion exercises, swimming, jogging, walking and bicycling. Involves muscle shortening, and active movement. Benefit – increased muscle mass, tone, and strength, increased cardiac/respiratory function
Isometric: contracting quadriceps and gluteal muscles. involved muscle contraction without shortening (no movement or only minimum shortening of muscle fibers). Benefit – increased muscle mass, tone, and strength, increased circulation to body part.
Isokinetic: rehabilitation exercises for knee or elbow injuries, and lifting weights. involved muscle contractions w/ resistance. Resistance from a device with resistance. Device take muscle and joint through complete ROM w.out stopping. Meets resistance.
Flaccidity: decreased tone, hypotonicity –resulting from disuse or neurologic impairments
Spasticity: increased tone that interferes with movement. Caused by neurologic impairments.
Paresis: impaired muscle strength or weakness.
Paralysis: absence of strength secondary to a nervous impairment.
Active Exercise (ROM): the pt independently moves joints thru full range of motion (isotonic). Increase muscle tone, mass and strength. Improves cardiac and respiratory functioning.
Passive Exercise (ROM): pt is unable to move independently, and the nurse moves each joint it's range of motion.
Fowler's Position: HOB elevated 40-60 degrees.
Supine or dorsal recumbent position: resting on back.
Side lying or Lateral Position: side lying with opposite arm, thigh and knee flexed and resting on the bed.
Prone Position: on stomach
Sim's Position: semi-prone
DVT (deep vein thrombosis) prevention: Antiembolism Stockings and Pneumatic Compression Devices
Antiembolism: used for patient at risk for DVT, PE, and help prevent phlebitis.Increase the velocity of blood flow in the superficial and deep veins and improve venous valves function in the legs, promoting venous return to the heart. Physician order is required.
Pneumatic compression devices: May be used in conjunction with stockings. Require a physician's order and are often prescribed for high risk patients: decreased mobility, pts with chronic venous disease and pts with deep vein disorders.
Created by: mr209368