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Radiobiology: Study of Effects of Ionizing Radiation

the study of effects of radiation on humans radiobiology
suggests that low levels of radiation(<50 mGy or 5 rad)provides a protective effect by simulating molecular repair mechanisms radiation hormesis
at what level do all effects of radiation begin at the atomic level of a structure
what are the three catagories of human response to radiation *early *late(chronic/delayed) *embryo-fetal
what are some symptoms of early effects of radiation *acute radiation syndrome *local tissue damage *hematologic damage(drops blood count) *cytogenic(cellular change)
what are some symptoms of late/delayed effects of radiation *cancer *local tissue damage *life span shortening *genetic effects
what is a point lesion change in genetic code
what does prodrome mean early symptom
what is something if it is latent dormant
what are the three stages of radiation effects *prodrome *latency *manifest
what is something if it is acute sudden onset
what are the dose effects discussed *250 mSv= drop in cell count *1500 mSv= erythema adn NVD *3000 mSv= lethal dose, 50% of exposed population will die within 30 days(LD 50/30)
how many levels of cellular composition are there 7
what is the 1st level of cellular composition chemical or atomic
what happens at level 1(chemical or atomic) interactions between elements to combine into molecules
what is a large molecule with a major function macromolecule
what is homeostasis constancy of internal environment
what is catabolism breakdown of molecules
what is anabolism building up of molecules
what is metabolism process of building up and breaking down of molecules (catabolism and anabolism working together)
what is the composition of a macromolecule *80% water *15% proteins *2% lipids *1% carbohydrates *1% RNA *1% DNA
what is the importance of water within a cell *provides form and cell shape *maintains temperature *enters into biochemical reactions
what is the only non-organic molecule in the body water
what role does protein play within a cell *chain of 22 amino acids connected by peptide chain *provides structure and support
what do enzymes do allow biochemical reactions
what do hormones do regulate and control body functions
what are antibodies primary defense against antigens
antigen foreign substance that causes body to produce antibodies, when introduced to body
what role do lipids play within the cell *structural component of cell membrane *thermal insulator *provide energy storage and fuel
what role do carbohydrates play within the cell *fuel for cell metabolism *provide shape and stability for cells/tissues *poly or monosaccharides
what is the role of RNA within a cell *Single strand(helix) *found in nucleus and cytoplasm *messanger and transfer RNA *protein synthesis
what is the role of DNA within a cell *found only in nucleus *double helix *hold nitrogenous bases *contain 5-carbon sugar(pentose, which is a monosaccharide) *phosphoric acid bonds *contains all hereditary info *found on chromosome *most radiosensitive MM *contains codon
what makes up the side rails of DNA ladder alternating sugar and phosphate molecules
what makes up rungs of DNA ladder pairs of nitrogenous bases(one purine and one pyrimidine)
a series of 3 adjacent bases in one polynucleotide chain of a DNA or RNA molecule, which codes for a specific amino acid codon
basic unit of matter, consists of nucleus and surrounded by negatively charged electrons atom
(A#) number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus atomic mass
(Z#) number of protons in a nucleus atomic number
two atoms that have same number of protons but different number of neutrons/same atomic number different atomic mass isotope
group of 8 e- in outermost shell, cannot chemically combine octet
determines the chemical binding ability of an atom valence
constancy of internal environment homeostasis
what is the second level of cellular composition organelles
what is an organelle small organ within a cell with specific functions
what are the different types of organelles within a cell *endoplasmic reticulum *golgi aparatus *lysosomes *mitochondria *ribosomes
organelle found within the cytoplasm that functions as channels whereby nucleus communicates with cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum
organelle that concentrates and packages secretion products (mailman) golgi apparatus
organelle that contains enzymes capable of digesting cellular fragments and sometimes the cell itself lysosomes
where macromolecules are digested to produce cellular energy, known as the workhorse or engine of the cell mitochodria
small organelle, which is the site of protein synthesis ribosomes
what is the third level of cellular composition the cell
what is a cell basic living subunit, within any living organism
has single helix strand, found in and outside of nucleus, and comes in messanger, and transfer varieties ribonulceic acid(RNA)
the most radiosensitive of all macromolecules, since it contains genetic info. found inside of nucleus and controls cell function deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
this part of the cell is made of lipid-protein that selectively allows small molecules and water to diffuse and provide structure and form cell membrane
outside of nucleus but within plasma membrane, contains organelles and all living things within a cell, made of 70%-90% water cytoplasm/protoplasm
what are the basic functions of the cell membrane *protein synthesis- genetic code contained in DNA tells which protein to be produced *code transfers to mRNA within nucleus, mRNA leaves via ER on way to ribosome, where it is tranferred to tRNA. tRNA searches cytoplasm for the coded amino acid.
what is the next step after tRNA finds the amino acid that matches the code it carries it attaches to the amino acid and carries it to the ribosome, where it joins other amino acids in sequence by peptide bonds to form protein molecule.
what happens if there is any interference with any of the sequences of protein synthesis could result in damage to the cell
all cells of the body except the oogonium and the spermatogonium somatic cells
what type of cells are oogonium(ovum) and spermatogonium(sperm) genetic cells
which type of cells undergo mitosis somatic cells
what are the phases of mitosis *prophase *Metaphase *anaphase *telophase
*genetic material forms strands in nucleus, the 1st sign of chromosome formation *nucleus and chromosomes enlarge *membrane begins to break down *chromosomes move toward equatorial plate prophase
*chromosomes at equatorial plate *membrane completely broken down *chromatids attach to spindle fibers by centromere *duplication metaphase
*splitting of each chromosome at centromere, so that a centromere and two chromatids are attached to a spindle fiber, which is attached to a spindle or pole *newly formed chromosomes migrate to opposite poles or spindles anaphase
*structural chromosomes disappear into mass of DNA *nuclear membrane is pinched in middle and two new nuclei are formed telophase
*towards the end of telophase *cytoplasm is divided into two equal parts(daughter cells), each one keeping one of the nuclei *not a part of mitosis, but a seperate part of proliferation cytokinesis
what is the life cycle of a cell *gap 1-preperation for synthesis(part of interphase) *DNA is synthesized(part of interphase) *gap 2-preperation for mitosis(part of interphase) *mitosis
genetic cells undergo what type of proliferation meiosis- reduction division*chromosomes are reduced from 46 to 23 after to cycles(mother cells divide into two daughter cells, which are then each divided into two grandaughter cells, each with 23 chromosomes)
*exchange of chromosomal material between chromatids, resulting in changes to genetic make-up and inherited traits*happens in second cycle of meiosis crossing over
what happens in level 4 of cellular organization groups of similar cells form tissues
what happens in level 5 of cellular organization two or more tissues with common function form organs
what happens in level 6 of cellular organization groups of organs form the 10 body systems
what are the 10 body systems *immune *skeletal *nervous *digestive *cardiovascular *integumentary *respiratory *endocrine *reproductive *excretory
what happens at level 7 of cellular organization living organism
what are the most radiosensitive cells in the body *lymphocytes *spermatogonia *erythroblasts
what are the most radioresistant cells in the body *muscle cells *nerve cells *chondrocytes *erythrocytes
*the part of the cell cycle between one mitotic phase and the next, from the end of cytokinesis to the beginning of the next prophase *period of growth of the cell, between divisions interphase
what is RBE relative biologic effectiveness- dose of radiation necessary to produce an effect vs. dose of a different type of radiation to produce same effect
what are the embryo/fetal radiation dose effects during 1st two weeks of pregnancy no known effects
what are the embryo/fetal radiation dose effects during weeks 2 to 10 congenital abnormalities, such as mental retardation or most commonly skeletal deformities
what are the embryo/fetal radiation dose effects during 2nd and 3rd trimesters malignant childhood disease, most commonly leukemia
which two nitrogenous bases are purines adenine and guanine
which two nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines thymine and cytosine
a unit formed from a nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar molecule, and a phosphate molecule nucleotide
Created by: bigad1982