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Chapter 4 ABA

SAFMEDS

QuestionAnswer
Measurement the process of assigning numbers and units to particular features of objects or events.
Repeatability Refers to the fact that a behavior can occur repeatedly through time (i.e.. behavior can be counted); one of the three dimensional quantities of behavior from which all behavioral measurements are derived
Temporal Extent Refers to the fact that every instance of behaviour occurs during some amount of time; one of the three dimensional quantities of behavior from which all behavioural measurements are derived
Temporal Locus Refers to the fact that every instance of behaviour occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events (i.e.. when in time behaviours occurs can be measured); often measured in terms of response latency and inter response time (IRT);
TL con't one of the three dimensional quantities of behavioural measurements are derived.
Count simple tally of the number of occurrences of a behaviour.The observation period, or counting time, should always be noted when reporting count measures
Rate (or Frequency) A ratio of count per observation time; often expressed as count per standard unit of time (e.g.. per minute, per hour, per day) and calculated by dividing the number of responses recorded by the
number of standard units of time in which observations were conducted; used interchangeably with frequency. Rate 2 The ratio is formed by combining the different dimensional quantities retain their dimensional quantities.
Rate 3 Rate and frequency in behavioural measurement are synonymous terms.
Free Operent Any operant behaviour that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space. A free operant can be emitted at nearly and time; it is discrete, it requires minimal time for completion, and it can produce a wide range of response rates.
Examples in ABA include (a) the number of words read during a 1-minute counting period (b) the number of hand slaps per 6 seconds (c) letter strokes written per 3 mins
Discrete Trial Any operant whose response rate is controlled by any given opportunity to emit the response. Each discrete response occurs when an opportunity to respond exists (Contrast free operant)
Celeration The change ( acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time; based on count per unit of time (rate); expressed as a factor by which responding is accelerating or decelerating (multiplying or dividing);
displayed with a trend line on a Standard Celeration Chart. Celeration is a generic term without specific reference to accelerating or decelerating rates of response.
Celeration Trend Line The celeration trend line is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods (e.g.. rate per week, rate per month, rate per year, rate per decade)
Celeration Time period A unit of time (eg. per week, per month) in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart.
Duration A measure of the total extent of time in which a behaviour occurs
Response Latency A measure of temporal locus; the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g.. task direction, cue) to the initiation of a response
Interresponse Time A measure of temporal locus; defined as the elapsed time between two successive responses
Percentage A ratio ( ie. proportion) formed by combining the same dimensional quantities such as count (number/number) or time ( duration/duration; latency/latency); expressed as a number of parts per 100;
typically expressed as a ration of the number of responses of a certain type per total number of responses (or opportunities or intervals in which such a response could have occurred). A percentage presents a proportional quantity per 100.
Trials-to-Criterion A special form of event recording; a measure of the number of responses or practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve a pre established level of accuracy or proficiency
Topography The physical form or shape of a behaviour
Magnitude The force or intensity with which a response is emitted; provides important quantitative parameters used in defining and verifying the occurrence of some response classes.
Mag 2 Responses meeting those criteria are measured and reported by one or more fundamental or derivative measures such as frequency, duration, or latency. Sometimes call amplitude.
Event Recording Measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behaviour occurs
Time Sampling A measurement of the presence or absence of behaviour within specific time intervals. It is most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviours.
Whole-Interval Recording A time sampling method for measuring behaviour in which observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals (typically 5-15 seconds)
W-I R2 At the end of each interval, the observer records whether the target behaviour occurred throughout the entire interval; tends to underestimate the proportion of the observation period that many behaviours actually occurred
Partial-Interval recording A time sampling method for measuring behaviour in which the observation period is divided into a series of brief intervals (5-15 seconds). The observer records whether the target behaviour occurred at any time during the interval.
Partial interval recording is not concerned with how many times the behaviour was present, just that it occurred at some point during the interval; tends to overestimate the proportion of the observation period that the behaviour actually occurred.
Momentary Time Sampling A measurement methods in which the presence or absence of behaviours are recorded at precisely specified time intervals.(Contrast Interval recording)
Planned Activity Check (PLACHECK) A variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behaviour at specific points in time; provides a measure of "Group behaviour"
Measurement by Permanent Product A method of measuring behaviour after it has occurred be recording the effects that the behaviour produced on the environment
Artifact An outcome or result that appears to exist because of the way it is measured but in fact does not correspond to what actually occurred
Created by: Allison3000