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# Chapter 4 ABA

### SAFMEDS

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Measurement | the process of assigning numbers and units to particular features of objects or events. |

Repeatability | Refers to the fact that a behavior can occur repeatedly through time (i.e.. behavior can be counted); one of the three dimensional quantities of behavior from which all behavioral measurements are derived |

Temporal Extent | Refers to the fact that every instance of behaviour occurs during some amount of time; one of the three dimensional quantities of behavior from which all behavioural measurements are derived |

Temporal Locus | Refers to the fact that every instance of behaviour occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events (i.e.. when in time behaviours occurs can be measured); often measured in terms of response latency and inter response time (IRT); |

TL con't one of the three dimensional quantities of behavioural measurements are derived. | |

Count | simple tally of the number of occurrences of a behaviour.The observation period, or counting time, should always be noted when reporting count measures |

Rate (or Frequency) | A ratio of count per observation time; often expressed as count per standard unit of time (e.g.. per minute, per hour, per day) and calculated by dividing the number of responses recorded by the |

number of standard units of time in which observations were conducted; used interchangeably with frequency. Rate 2 The ratio is formed by combining the different dimensional quantities retain their dimensional quantities. | |

Rate 3 Rate and frequency in behavioural measurement are synonymous terms. | |

Free Operent | Any operant behaviour that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space. A free operant can be emitted at nearly and time; it is discrete, it requires minimal time for completion, and it can produce a wide range of response rates. |

Examples in ABA include (a) the number of words read during a 1-minute counting period (b) the number of hand slaps per 6 seconds (c) letter strokes written per 3 mins | |

Discrete Trial | Any operant whose response rate is controlled by any given opportunity to emit the response. Each discrete response occurs when an opportunity to respond exists (Contrast free operant) |

Celeration | The change ( acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time; based on count per unit of time (rate); expressed as a factor by which responding is accelerating or decelerating (multiplying or dividing); |

displayed with a trend line on a Standard Celeration Chart. Celeration is a generic term without specific reference to accelerating or decelerating rates of response. | |

Celeration Trend Line | The celeration trend line is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods (e.g.. rate per week, rate per month, rate per year, rate per decade) |

Celeration Time period | A unit of time (eg. per week, per month) in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart. |

Duration | A measure of the total extent of time in which a behaviour occurs |

Response Latency | A measure of temporal locus; the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g.. task direction, cue) to the initiation of a response |

Interresponse Time | A measure of temporal locus; defined as the elapsed time between two successive responses |

Percentage | A ratio ( ie. proportion) formed by combining the same dimensional quantities such as count (number/number) or time ( duration/duration; latency/latency); expressed as a number of parts per 100; |

typically expressed as a ration of the number of responses of a certain type per total number of responses (or opportunities or intervals in which such a response could have occurred). A percentage presents a proportional quantity per 100. | |

Trials-to-Criterion | A special form of event recording; a measure of the number of responses or practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve a pre established level of accuracy or proficiency |

Topography | The physical form or shape of a behaviour |

Magnitude | The force or intensity with which a response is emitted; provides important quantitative parameters used in defining and verifying the occurrence of some response classes. |

Mag 2 Responses meeting those criteria are measured and reported by one or more fundamental or derivative measures such as frequency, duration, or latency. Sometimes call amplitude. | |

Event Recording | Measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behaviour occurs |

Time Sampling | A measurement of the presence or absence of behaviour within specific time intervals. It is most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviours. |

Whole-Interval Recording | A time sampling method for measuring behaviour in which observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals (typically 5-15 seconds) |

W-I R2 At the end of each interval, the observer records whether the target behaviour occurred throughout the entire interval; tends to underestimate the proportion of the observation period that many behaviours actually occurred | |

Partial-Interval recording | A time sampling method for measuring behaviour in which the observation period is divided into a series of brief intervals (5-15 seconds). The observer records whether the target behaviour occurred at any time during the interval. |

Partial interval recording is not concerned with how many times the behaviour was present, just that it occurred at some point during the interval; tends to overestimate the proportion of the observation period that the behaviour actually occurred. | |

Momentary Time Sampling | A measurement methods in which the presence or absence of behaviours are recorded at precisely specified time intervals.(Contrast Interval recording) |

Planned Activity Check (PLACHECK) | A variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behaviour at specific points in time; provides a measure of "Group behaviour" |

Measurement by Permanent Product | A method of measuring behaviour after it has occurred be recording the effects that the behaviour produced on the environment |

Artifact | An outcome or result that appears to exist because of the way it is measured but in fact does not correspond to what actually occurred |

Created by:
Allison3000