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Adenylyl cyclase Is an enzyme that initiates signaling pathways by convertingATP to cyclic AMP
Adrenergic receptors Are a class of G protein coupled receptors that bind to catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine
Affinity Describes the tightness of binding between a hormone and its receptor.. It is quantified in terms of the concentration of hormone at which half of thenavailable receptors are occupied
Alternate splicing It is the way of introducing diversity to the gene products of transcription by creating multiple protein products from the same DNA sequence
Antagonism the opposing action of Ligands that when taken together decreasethe effectiveness of at least one of them
Atrial natriuretic factor A vasodilator secreted by heart muscles to control water, sodium, potassium and fat levels
Beta-arrestin Is a protein that regulates the activity of G proteins by binding to them and target them for internalization
Calmodulin Is a calcium binding messenger protein that tranduces calcium signals by binding to calcium ions and then modifying its interactions with various target proteins
Capacity Maximum response to a ligand that a tissue or organ can achieve which depends upon the number of target cells and their competence
Coactivators or corePressors Molecules that help the transcription factors bind to the DNA in order in order for gene transcription to occur
Codon A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule
CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) Is a transcription factor that binds to specific parts of DNA called cAMP response elements thereby activiting or blocking transcription
Cytokenisis Any of a class of immune regulatory proteins that are secreted by cells especially of the immune system
Diabetes insipidus A disorder that is characterized by excessive thirst and excessive ruination caused by irregularities in production or response to a hormone called vasopressin
Diabetes mellitus A type of metabolic disease In which the person has high blood sugar levels because the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
DNA binding domain A region in the intracellular receptor where the receptor binds to DNA
Dose responsive curve Is the relationship bw the mgnintude of a hormonal response and the concentration of a hormone that produces the response
Down regulation Is a process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component such as receptors or hormones in response to an external variable
Endocrine glands Glands that secrete their products directly into blood rather than through a duct
Endocrinology The study of the endocrine glands actions of hormones and their metabolic consequences in the body
Exocytosis The release of cellular substances by vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and transport the substances .out of the cell
Exon A segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for arotein or peptide sequence
Exophthalmos Bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the eye socket
Feed forward Anticipatory or preemptive chemical response that prepares the body for change or a demand
G alpha q An alpha subunit of G proteins which stimulates the membrane bound enzyme phospholipase c-beta (Plc-beta) to liberate Ip3 and DAG from the plasma membrane
Germ theory States that many diseases are caused by the presence and actions of specific microorganism within the body
Glucagon A hormone formed in the pancreas that acts in the liver to promote the breakdown of glycogen into glucose
Glycogen A monosaccharide nutrient used by body cells as the primary source of energy.
Glucose A monosaccharide nutrient used by body cells as the primary source of energy.
Glucocorticoid steroid hormones that bind to glucocorticoid receptors to regulate glucose levels and decrease immune responses.
Glycosylation The process by which sugars are chemically attached to proteins to form glycoproteins.
Goiter Abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Gonadothrphs basophilic cells n the anterior pituitary that secrete follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
G-proteins are afamily of protein involvedin transmittingsignals from avariety of different stimuli outside a cell to inside the cell.Theiractivity is regulated by factors thatcontrol their ability tobind to and hydrolyze GTPGDP) bind GTP, they 'on and,bind GDP 'off
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that causes the thyroid gland to overproduce thyroid hormone.
Half maximal response the concentration of hormone required to generate half of the maximum response that a cell can generate.
Heat shock proteins a group of proteins in steroid hormone receptors that prevent the receptor from binding to the DNA before its ligand is available.
Heterodimero a protein composed of two polypeptide chains with different types of amino acids.
Hormone A chemical released by a cell, a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that affects cells in other parts of the body.
Hormone convertases Enzymes that are packaged into secretory vesicles that bud off from the Golgi stacks.
Humoral Of or relating to body fluids.
Hypophyseal portal system a set of blood vessels in the brain that connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
Hypophysiotropic hormones are releasing and inhibiting regulatory hormones produced by the hypothalamus to control the rate of secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus a portion of the brain that has a number of nuclei with a variety of functions including the control of the pituitary gland and integration of signals from the autonomic nervous system.
Insulin A polypeptide hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that regulates the metabolism of sugar and fat.
Intron A noncoding segment in the DNA that interrupts a gene-coding segment of the DNA.
Lactotroph acidophilic cells in the adenohypophysis that secrete prolactin.
Ligand A molecule such as an antibody, hormone, or drug, that binds to a receptor
Median eminence a part of the hypothalamus that is devoid of a blood-brain barrier and from which regulatory hormones are released.
Metabolic clearance rate Is the same as the half-life of a hormone in blood which is the period of time needed for the hormone’s concentration to be reduced by half.
Negative Feedback some consequence of hormone secretion that acts directly or indirectly on the secretory cells to inhibit further secretion of the hormone.
Nuerohormones A hormone that is produced by the neurosecretory cells of the nervous system.
Neurohypophysis the posterior portion of the pituitary gland that releases oxytocin or vasopressin in response to neural signals from the hypothalamus.
Neurophysins carrier proteins that transport oxytocin and vasopressin to the posterior pituitary from the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Neurotransmitter A chemical substance that is produced and secreted by a neuron then diffuses through the synapse to excite or inhibit another neuron.
Norepinephrine A substance that is both a hormone (when released by the adrenal medulla) and a neurotransmitter (when released by sympathetic nerves) and acts to mobilize the body for action.
Nucleosomes Is a section of DNA that is wrapped around a core of proteins called histones.
Osmolality is a measure of the moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. It is used to assess the amount of chemicals dissolved in plasma.
Osmoreceptors a sensory receptor in the hypothalamus that detects changes in osmotic pressure to help balance body fluids.
Palpitation An abnormally rapid, strong, or irregular heartbeat.
Permissiveness a mechanism of hormone integration in which the presence of one hormone is required in order for another hormone to generate a response.
Phosphorylase An enzyme that adds a phosphate group to an organic molecule.
Prohormone A substance that is a precursor to a hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself.
Promoter a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Protein kinase are enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to specific amino acids in other proteins.
Protein phosphatases Enzymes that remove phosphate groups from residues and restore those molecules to their unstimulated state.
Push-pull mechanism a mechanism of hormone integration in which one hormone increases a response and another hormone decreases it.
Radioimmunoassay a technique for measuring concentrations of an antigen such as a hormone by using antibodies and radioactive substances
Reinforcement a single hormone acting in different ways in different tissues to tproduce complementary effects.
Retinoid X receptor(RXR) nuclear receptor in absence of ligand is bound to hormone response elements with corepressor protein promotes transcription downstream target gene into mRNA n protein.
Second messenger Substances such as cyclic AMP that transmit and amplify the message delivered by a hormone (first messenger) to a cell.
Secretin A polypeptide hormone produced by the small intestine that activates the pancreas during digestion to secrete pancreatic juice.
Secretogranins Large acidic proteins that sort hormones into immature vesicles and process them for secretion.
Sella Turcica a depression in the midline of the upper surface of the sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland is located.
Sensitivity describes the ability of a cell or organ to respond to a signal in proportion to the intensity of that signal.
Set point any one of a number of quantities (e.g. body weight, body temperature, hormone levels) which the body tries to keep at a particular value.
Signal transduction Conversion of a hormonal message to cellular responses.
Signaling Pathways A series of biochemical changes within the cell that are set in motion in response to binding of a receptor to its ligand.
SNARE Proteins in the membrane of vesicles and plasma membrane that facilitate secretion of peptide hormones to outside of the cell by exocytosis.
Somatostatin a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus to regulate the endocrine system by inhibiting the release of various hormones.
Splicing The removal of introns and the joining of exons from mRNA precursors.
Symptoms Any departure from normal function that is reported or felt by the patient.
Synergism/Potentiation n two or more hormones act through separate but complementary pathways to enhance each other's actions.
Tachyphylaxis a decrease in response to a drug through downregulation of receptors or neurotransmitters that facilitate the drug's effect on the body.
Testosterone A sex hormone that stimulates the development of male sex organs, secondary sexual characteristics and sperm. It is produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and the adrenal cortex of both males and females.
Threshold the lowest amount or concentration of hormone that produces a measurable response.
Thyrotropes special type of cells in the anterior pituitary that secrete thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH).
Thyroxin the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland that increases metabolic rate and regulates growth and development.
Transcription factors Nuclear proteins, which regulate sites that are upstream from the promoter and stimulate or repress gene transcription.
Trophic hormones are hormones that stimulate the growth of tissues and organs such as those secreted by the anterior pituitary.
Upregulation is a process by which a cell increases the quantity of a cellular component such as receptors or hormones in response to an external variable.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay a sensitive test that uses antibodies and color change to measure the concentration of a drug or a hormone in blood.
Corticotrophs acidophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that secrete corticotropin.
Adenohypophysis the anterior portion of a small cherry-shaped structure attached by a stalk to the base of the brain constituting the master endocrine gland.
Created by: Tanique



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