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Psychology

Psychology Chapters 3 and 4

TermDefinition
CNS Central Nervous System Body's info system, billions of interconnected neurons
Neuron Building blocks of the nervous system consists of a cell body and branching fibers
Dendrite Receive Information
Axon Passes information to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Myelin Insulates axons and speeds their impulses
Sensory Neuron Send information from sensory receptors toward the CNS
Inter Neuron Send information between sensory neurons and motor neurons most located in the CNS
Motor Neuron Send information away from the CNS to muscles or glands
Neurotransmitter Chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by arrival of nerve impulse
Dopamine Involved primarily in motor behavior
Norephrine Hormone released by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter
Serotinin Compound present in blood platelets and serum that constricts the blood vessels and acts as a neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine Compound that occurs throughout the nervous system in which it functions as a neurotransmitter
Endorphin Any group of hormones secreted within the brain and NS having a number of functions
Peripheral NS Portion of the NS that is outside the brain and spinal chord
Somatic NS Transmits sensory messages to the CNS. Activated by touch, pain, temperature, and body position
Autonomic NS Controls bodily functions not conciously directed. Ex breathing, heartbeat, and digestive process
Sympathetic NS Regions of the spinal chord, reduces digestive secretions, speeds the heart, and contracts the blood vessels.
Parasympathetic NS Originates in the brain stem and lower part of spinal chord, slows heart, constricts, the pupils, and dialates the blood vessels.
Cerebellum Part of brain back of skulls in vertebrates. Functions to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
Frontal Lobe Includes areas of concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.
Parietal Lobe Areas concerned with reception and correlation of sensory information.
Occipital Lobe Main centers for visual processing located in the back region of the cerebal cortex.
Olfaction Action of capacity of smelling; sense of smell.
Gestalt Growing principles given a cluster of sensations our brain organizes them into a "form or whole"
Size Constancy Perceive size of a familiar object despite differences in their distance
Sensory Adaption Organism becomes more sensitive to weak stimuli, and less sensitive to unchanging stimuli
Perception Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
Sensation Stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmittion of sensory information to the brain
Temporal Lobe Includes areas concerned with understanding speech.
Sensation Stimulation of sensory receptors and transmittion of sensory info to the brain
Olfactory Bulb Olfactory nerve at the base of the brain
Closure Perceive a complete or whole figure even when there are gaps in sensory information
Illusions Thing that is likely to be perceived or interpreted by the senses
Absolute Threshold Smallest amount of stimuli that can be detected
Pituitary Gland Controlling growth, development, and functioning of other glands
Corpus Collosum Nerve fibers connect the left and right hemispheres of central cortex
Hypothalamus Controls temperature, hunger, thirst, and various aspects of emotion
Bottom-Up Processing Sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by higher level mental processes
Signal Detection Theory Ability to distinguish between signal and noise
Created by: tatummilo333