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Dz of Blood vessels

How is systemic hypertension (HTN) or aka. High blood pressure defined as? Systolic above 140, OR Diastolic above 90
Is hypertension multifactorial inheritance? Yes! BP is a complex trait determined by interaction of multiple genetic & environmental factors
BP is product of what? cardiac output & peripheral resistance
what determines cardiac output & peripheral resistance? cardiac output - stroke volume & heart rate peripheral resistance - arterioles thru opposing vasoconstrictor & vasodilator
Kidney plays an impt. role in BP, mainly thru what? renin-angiotensin axis
what is the epidemiology of HTN? Very common, 25% of general population. 50% die w/ ischemic heart dz or congestive heart failure. 33 % die w/ stroke. 5 % w/ malignant hypertension(rapidly rising BP), die of renal failure.
HTN is an impt. risk factor for what dzs? 1. ischemic heart dz 2. cerebrovascular accident (stroke) 3. congestive heart failure 4. renal failure
Etiologic types of HTN: describe them. 1. Essential HTN (90-95%) = considered idiopathic & primary 2. Secondary HTN (5-10%) = happens secondary to other dz, esp to renal dz/narrowing of renal artery.
Describe: Benign HTN vs. Malignant HTN Benign HTN = fairly stable over yrs - decades, lives long life. Malignant HTN (accelerated HTN) = BP rises rapidly, death w/in 1-2 yrs, diastolic >120, renal failure, retinal hemorrhages.
what are some mechanisms for Essential HTN? (they are no single mechanism that are responsible) 1. Reduced renal sodium excretion 2. Increased Vascular resistance 3. Genetic factors 4. Environmental influences
Define: 1. Hyaline arteriolosclerosis 2. Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis
What is Arteriosclerosis? general term of 3 types of vascular dz which cause thickening & inelasticity of arteries.
what are types of arteriosclerosis? 1. arteriolosclorosis 2. Monkeberg medial calcific sclerosis 3. atherosclerosis
what is Arteriolosclerosis? Dz. of small arteries & arterioles. occurs often w/ hypertension & diabetes mellitus.
what is Monkeberg medial calcific sclerosis? calcifications in media of medium sized muscular arteries. typically age >50yrs. vessels may be hard to palpate & interesting radiograph. trivial dz & not ass. w/ clinical dz.
what is atherosclerosis? Formation of atheromas(fibrofatty plaques at intima)
Athromas produce...? 1. vascular narrowing - b/c protrude into lumen 2. degenerative changes - b/c weakens the vessel wall
Most serious consequences of artherosclerosis is seen at...? 1. coronary artereis 2. cerebral vessels 3. aorta
what's the epidemiology of atherosclerosis? 1. Major complication is death/ disability from heart attacks & stroke 2. cause 1/3 of death in US
what are the constitutional risk factors for atherosclerosis? 1. Genetics (mostly related to polygenic traits for hypertension & diabetes) 2. Age 3. Gender
what are the modifiable major risk factors for atherosclerosis? (list in rank) 1. hyperlipidemia/Hypercholesterolemia 2. Hypertension 3. cigarette smoking 4. Diabetes mellitus
Describe the pathogenesis of ATH. 7 steps- look notes
sites of predilection for ATH. 1. lower abdominal aorta 2. coronary arteries 3. popliteal arteries. 4. internal carotid arteries 5. circle of Willis
Created by: dsung