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GI cancer

from the GI powerpoint in D2L

QuestionAnswer
Groups that have a higher incidence of esophageal caner African Americans, Alaskans, Men, Ages 70-84
Risk factors for esophageal cancer smoking excessive alcohol Barrett's metaplasia esophageal injury Achalasia-delayed emptying of lower esophagus
What is Barrett's metaplasia? a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white men. GERD is a disease in which there is reflux of acidic fluid from the stomach into the esophagus
What is Achalasia? A muscular ring at the point where the esophagus and stomach come together normally relaxes during swallowing. In people with achalasia, this muscle ring does not relax as well. The reason for this problem is damage to the nerves of the esophagus.
Name two workplace exposures that could cause esophageal harm Lye Asbestos
Post operative goals for the post-operative esophageal cancer patient maintenance of NG tube Maintenance of airway Prevention of respiratory complications Nutrition
In what position would you place a post op esophageal cancer patient? semi-fowler's
What intervention would help prevent respiratory complications in a post op esophageal cancer patient? Incentive spirometry
What airway risk needs to be considered in a post op esophageal cancer patient Risk for aspiration
What nursing diagnoses would you expect for a post op esophageal cancer patient with a poor prognosis? anxiety grieving
What is an esophagectomy? removal of all or part of the esophagus with use of a dacron graft
What is an esophagogastrectomy? resection of a portion of the esophagus with anastomosis of remaining portion to stomach
What is an esophagoenterostomy? resection of a portion of the esophagus with anastamosis to colon
What type of tube is used with esophagogastrectomy? Jejunostomy tube
symptoms of stomach cancer weight loss indigestion abdominal pain anemia
Risk/contributing factors to stomach cancer H.pylori autoimmune-related inflammation smoking anti-inflammatory agents
Post op care for total gastrectomy observe for leaking from anastomosis site monitor for dumping syndrome replacement of vitamins
What is dumping syndrome? undigested contents of your stomach move too rapidly into your small bowel. Common symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea and diarrhea
Which vitamins need to be replaced following a total gastrectomy? C, D, K, and the B-complex vitamins and cobalamine
What is a Billroth I? gastroduodenostomy: the pylorus is removed and the proximal stomach is anastomosed directly to the duodenum
What is a Billroth II? gastrojejunostomy: greater curvature of the stomach is connected to the first part of the jejunum
Name three complications of Billroth I or II surgery? dumping syndrome postprandial hypoglycemia bile reflux gastritis
What lifestyle factors are associated with colorectal cancer? obesity smoking alcohol large intake of processed and/or red meat
Why is colorectal cancer so hard to detect early on? Symptoms don't appear until the disease is well advanced, and people are reluctant to have the diagnostics done (colonoscopy)
What is colorectal cancer? colorectal refers to the colon and the rectum, which together make up the large intestine. Colorectal cancer can originate anywhere in the large intestine
what causes colorectal cancer? unknown. Research has shown that approximately 75% of colorectal cancers occur in people with no known risk factors.
What are the risk factors of colorectal cancer? family history history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease familial adenomatous polypsis hereditary nonpolyposis
Who should be tested for colorectal cancer? all men and women aged 50 or older
s/s of colorectal cancer blood in or on stool change in bowel habits narrow stool general, unexplained stomach discomfort frequent gas, pains or indigestion chronic fatigue
How are people tested for colorectal cancer? fecal occult blood test flexible sigmoidoscopy colonoscopy double contrast barium enema
How often should a fexible sigmoidoscopy be performed? Every five years. If positive, a colonoscopy should be done
How often should a colonoscopy be done? Every ten years
How often should a double-contrast barium enema be done? Every five years
How often should a CT colonography be done? Every five years
What is the only cure for CRC (colorectal cancer)? surgery
When are chemotherapy and radiation used in the treatment of CRC? When it has spread to the lymph nodes or nearby tissues.
What is the optimal surgical procedure in the treatment of CRC? bowel resection with reanastomosis of remaining segments (left or right hemicolectomy)
Created by: ld23012