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Intestinal disorders

from the handout in D2L

Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix. Accumulation of mucus and bacteria can occur which leads to gangrene and perforation
Diverticulitis Diverticula are saccular dilations of colonic mucosa Diverticulitis is inflammation of the diverticula, resulting in perforation into the peritoneum
Hernia Herniation of a portion of the intestines through a weakened portion of the abdominal cavity If intestine becomes strangulated, the patient can develop symptoms of a bowel obstruction: vomiting, distention
Obstruction Intestinal contents cannot pass through GI tract
Mechanical obstruction Usually in small intestine Surgical adhesion is most common cause
What are the most common causes of mechanical obstruction in the large intestines? hernias, tumors and carcinoma
Non-mechanical obstruction Neuromuscular or vascular cause Paralytic ileus-most common
Assessment findings: appendicitis Periumbilical pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting Rebound tenderness Fever
Assessment findings: diverticulitis Asymptomatic Abdominal pain Bloating, flatulence
Assessment findings: hernia Similar to GERD Bending over may cause severe burning pain
Assessment findings: obstruction Abdominal pain-determine location and assess for rigidity and tenderness Abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting Bowel sounds may be absent
Risk factors: appendicitis Most common cause is obstruction of lumen by feces, foreign bodies, excessive tissue growth
Risk factors: diverticulitis Poor fiber intake High refined carbohydrate intake Weakened bowel wall
Risk factors: hernia Large meals, heavy lifting, obesity, pregnancy, ascites, alcohol, smoking
Risk factors: obstruction [blank card]
Interventions: appendicitis Pain Position with right leg flexed Ice pack to right lower quadrant Antibiotics and fluids prior to surgery
Interventions: diverticulitis Altered Nutrition-increase fiber intake, weight reduction, exercise. Pain Avoid straining, vomiting, bending, lifting: all activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure
What would you monitor for in diverticulitis? complications: perforation with peritonitis, abscess, obstruction, bleeding
Interventions: hernia (see plan of care 42-2) will edit this card later!
Interventions: obstruction Fluid Volume Deficit related to retention of fluids in intestine, vomiting: Monitor electrolytes Administer IV fluids Care of the NG tube Pain: position of comfort
Created by: ld23012