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SocPsy - Week 5

Social Psychology with Professor Scott Plous

TermDefinition
altruism A motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interests.
social-exchange theory The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs.
reciprocity norm An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
social-responsibility norm An expectation that people will help those needing help.
bystander effect The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
aggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
instrumental aggression Aggression that is a means to some other end.
frustration The blocking of goal-directed behavior.
displacement The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.
social learning theory The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.
crowding A subjective feeling that there is not enough space per person.
catharsis Emotional release. This view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
social trap A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.
non-zero-sum games Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose. (Also called mixed-motive situations.)
mirror-image perceptions Reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.
Created by: Steve Robbins