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AP MOD. II-Endocrine

TermDefinition
endocrine glands secrete hormones into blood
target cells cells acted on by hormones
nonsteroid hormones protein hormone, first messengers
steroid hormones act on target cell nucleus
negative feedback loop mechanisms that reverse the direction of change
positive feedback loop mechanisms that amplify physiological changes, uncommon
hypersecretion secretion of an excess hormone
hyposecretion insufficient hormone secretion
polyendocrine disorders hyper- or hyposecretion of more that on hormone
prostaglandins produced in a tissue, act on cells in that tissue
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulates growth of thyroid gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulates growth of adrenal cortex, stimulates secretion of cortisol
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-initiates growth of ovarian follicles, stimulates estrogen production, stimulates sperm production
luteinizing hormone (LH)-actc with FSH
growth hormone (GH)- stimulates growth
prolactin (lactogenic hormone)-stimulates breast development and secretion of milk
gigantism hypersecretion of GH during childhood
acromegaly hypersecretion of GH during adulthood
dwarfism hyposecretion of GH during childhood
prolactinoma begnign ademona in females
hypothalamus produces ADH and oxytocin
thyroid hormones (T4 and T3)-increase body's metabolic rate
calitonin decreases blood calcium
hyperthyroidism hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Grave's disease inherited form of hyperthyroidism
hypothyroidism hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
goiter painless enlargemnt of thyroid due to deficiency of iodine
cretinism (retardation)-hyposecretion of thyroid hormones during early development
myxedema hyposecretion of thyroid hormones during adulthood
parathyroid hormone (PTH)-increases blood calcium
adrenal cortex secretes coricoids
mineralcorticoids increase blood sodium and decrease body potassium concentrations
glucocorticoids maintain normal glucose concentration
adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Cushing syndrome hypersecretion of glucocorticoids: moon face, hump on back
Addison disease hyposecretion of cortical hormones: muscle weakness, reduced blood sugar, loss of appetite
pancreatic islets secrete glucagon and insulin
glucagon increases blood glucose level
insulin decreases blood glucose
diabetes mellitus type 1 hyposecretion of insulin
diabetes mellitus type 2 target cell insensitivity to insulin
glycosuria glucose in the urine
thymus secretes thymosin
thymosin important in development and function of body's immune system
pineal gland secretes melatonin
Created by: ddoyon