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Microbiology

Chapter 3 Micro

QuestionAnswer
What does Bacteria and Archaea lack that Eukarya has? *Nucleus, internal organelles.
Characteristics of Bacteria and Archaea Single celled, nuleoid, prokaryotes, rigid cell wall, flagellum, cell wall for shape
Characteristics of Eucarya Larger than prokaryotes, membrane bound nucleous, internal organelles,cilia for motility, cytoskeleton to hold organelles in place
Examples of Eucarya Algae, fungi, protozoa, animals, and plants
internal organelles of Eucarya Nucleuos, cytoplasmic membrane, cillium, ribosomes, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, rough and smooth ER, cytoskeleto
Locations of Archaea most live in extreme environments, high pH, high temp, some in body
glycocalyx some Bacteria and Archaea have it to help adhere to surfaces. *Composed of carbohydrates and polysaccharide (ex: E.coli)
flagellum made of protein and help Bacteria and Archaea with motility responding to stimuli (taxis)
chemotaxis uses flagilla to move cell toward favorite chemical stimuli or away from a repellent
Fimbriae *in bacteria *Rod-like protein appendages that extend from cell. *shorter that flagella *Fimbriae adhere to other cells, host and substance in environment
Pilli *in some bacteria *Rod-like protein appendages that extend from cell. *longer than fimbriae but shorther than flagella
Cell wall *determines shape and structure support *made of peptoglycan (PG) *unique chemical structure distinguishes between gram+ and gram- bacteria
Bacillus subtilis *Bacteria *in soil, produces spores *thick cell wall *gram +
Peptidoglycan *in bacteria only (forms cell wall) *alternate 2 sub-units:NAG and NAM
(NAG) and (NAM) Form glycan chain that are held together by string of 4 of amino acids called tetrapeptide chain
Gram(+) Cell Wall Peptiglycan thick layer *Surface has (-) charge due to teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid *purple when dyed
Gram(-) Cell Wall thin Peptiglycan layer *outer membrane made of phospholipds, proteins, lipopolysaccharide(LPS)<- helps adhere to surface, is toxic and deadly
Many antimicrobials interfere with the synthesis of PG.. What are some examples? PENICILLIN- Bind to bacterial proteins used for PG synth.; prevent cross linking of glycan chains by tetrapeptides LYSOZYME- Breaks bond linking NAG and NAM; in tears and saliva
Cytoplasmic Membrane *selectively permeable *molecules pass through via simple diffusion requires carrier protein and energy **made of phospholipid bilayer(hydrophobic fatty tail and hydrophillic head) ***site of energy production
How is energy produced in the Cytoplasmic Membrane? Electron transport chain and in proton motive force
Cytosol(Cell Cytoplasm) 70-80% water *Contains sugars, amino acids, salts, ribosome **Granules(inclusion bodies for energy-rich substances e.g glycogen)
What internal structures are essential for life Chromosomes and Ribosomes *Also, Plasmid, Storage granules, and endospores ( found in Baceria )
Bacterial Endospore *Produced through sporulation *Resistant to heat, desiccation, chemicals and UV light **Spores made from carbs and proteins ***E.g Bacillus anthracis(causes anthrax)
Ribosome *Composed of RNA and Protein * Protein synthases
Cytoplasm Within are macromolecules *viscous fluid
Inclusions storage granules for long time energy
Cilium motility *made w/protein *increase surface area for nutrient absorbance
lysosome break down dying organelle, food particle
Golgi body packages proteins before they are sent to their destination
Rough ER protein production *studded with ribosomes
transport vesicle transport proteins from the Rough ER to the Golgi apparatus
Secretory vesicle Transports proteins out of the Golgi apparatus to a specific site
Centriole Cell division, DNA replicaion
nucleolus site of RNA synthesis, RNA is then moved through the nuclear envelope to the cytoplasm of cell
Whats a capsule&slime layer made of? polysaccharide referred to as glycocalyx
Conjugation pili *controls the transfer of DNA from one cell to other *horizontal gene transfer
What are commons bacterial genera that produce endospores? Clostridium & Bacillus
Clostridium In soil, can't live in O2
Bacillus In soil, lives in O2
Created by: izis