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Chapter 1: Part Two

government part of state with legitimate governmental authority
regime pattern of organization of government; characteristics are rules a state follows in exerting power
nation group of people, identify as belonging together because of cultural, ethnic ties
nation-state territorial unit controlled by a single state and governed by a single government
democracies "will of the people;" usually 'indirect' where elected officials representing people, or 'direct' citizens have an immediate say (ex: Athens)
authoritarian RULE BY COERCION; decisions made by political elites without much citizen input; have a lot of autonomy
executives / executive branch carries out laws and policies of state; 2 kinds: head of state and head of gov - can be combined
head of state symbolizes/represents state; may(not) have policy making power
head of government deals with everyday running of state; directs activities of executive branch members
bureaucracies agencies that implement government policy; a part of executive; expand as countries modernize; response to needs to improve health, security, welfare of citizens
characteristics of bureaucracies hierarchial authority structure (chain of command); task specialization; clear goals; merit-based (performance based on productivity not connections)
legislative branch makes the laws; bi or uni cameral; members determined in diff ways; some directly elected by voters, others selected by political party or by gov officials
bicameral 2 houses - most usual; traced to GB's House of Lords/Commons
unicameral 1 house
presidential system citizens vote for president and separately for legislature; result is separation of powers that can lead to legislature gridlock
parliamentary system citizens vote for only the leg. (parliament); prime minister emerges from leading party; results in fusion of powers that can expedite legislature
judiciary branch adjudicates / interprets laws
civil code if x happens, y is punishment; Russia, Mexico, China
legal precedent look to other similar cases
judicial review not necessary for democracy; ability to review laws and executive actions for constitutionality
tiers of court original court, appellate, final court of appeal
institutionalization political power is temporary unless turned into political institutions; dictators rarely are
poorly institutionalized 3rd world countries; extra legal changes in leaders by revolutions or coups
well institutionalized evolved over 100s of years; Mexico only started in 1920s
confederal system spreads power among many sub units; weak central government; ex: switzerland
federal system divides power between central gov and subunits; ex: US, russia, nigeria
unitary system concentrates power in one geographic location; ex: china, iran, gb
social cleavages divisions in society that interact with political system and implement policy; how are they represented? is selection of poli elites based on cleavages?; lead to instability
cumulative or polarizing cleavages 2 opposing sides, strong fighting, separated
cross-cutting cleavages all mixed up; pulling in all sorts of directions
social movement organized collective activites by citizens; aim at changing or resisting policies; often feature leaders who step outside traditional mainstream society to affect social change; civil rights, anti-aparthied
civil society organizations outside of state; helps people define / advance own interests; strong in democracy; composed of organizations that represent class, religion, ie interest outside of gov control
civil society cont. act as check on power of state to prevent tyranny of majority or tendency to ignore rights/liberties of minorites; web of interest group outside government that holds it accountable
linkage institutions identify groups that link citizens to government; political parties, interest groups, print and e-media
political parties bring different people and ideas together for interest articulation and to hold politicians accountable; most dem have multi-party, 2 party is unusual
electoral systems rules that determine how votes are cast, counted, and translated into selection for political office; first-past-the-post, proportional, mixed
first past the post constituencies are divided into single-member districts in which canidates compete for single representative seats; plurality or winner takes all system; winner doesn't need majority, just more than everyone else
proportional representation creates multi-member districts; more than one leg. seat is contested; voters cast ballot for party, not canidate; % of votes receives determines how many seats party will have; consensus democracy
mixed system combines some seats elected by fptp and others by proportional
political implications of fptp creates majoritarian democracies characterized by conflictional politics btw 2 major parties combined w/a strong executive and few checks on the majoirty to pass laws and amend the constitution (US)
poli implications of proportional and mixed tend to create consensus democracies characterized by a multiparty system w/diffusion of power across branches and levels of gov; create conditions for coalition gov since no party has a sufficient majority to rule w/out support of smaller parties; weaker
relationship of state and citizens pluralism vs corporatism vs clientalism
pluralism state where poli power is dispersed among a large # of groups and interests; substantive democracies - no one group monopolized power; standard of social-welfare state (GB)
corporatism state where major interest groups participate in state's decision-making process; key groups negotiate directly w/gov to determine economic and social policies; Mexico
clientalism state where powerful patron offers resources to less powerful clients (voters) in exchange for support; patron-client relationship; roots in feudalism; Iran, Russia
political change in state citizens may interact with state in attempt to affect political change in following ways: reform, dissidence, revolution, coup d'etat
reform doesn't advocate overthrow of basic institutions, seeks to change some methods that political leaders use to realize society's goals; change from inside
dissidence anti-gov behavior, falls short of toppling existing political regime of state; may not only be in pursuit of democracy as some may wish to replace one form of dictatorship with another
revolution overthrow of one system of government of state and its replacement by another system; usually impact more than 1 area of life; more longterm than a coup d'├ętat
coup d'etat sudden overthrow of a gov usually by violent means; typically occur in countries where gov institutions are weak, leaders take control by force; PRAETORIANISM
economics study of how people and societies allocate scarce resources (natural resources, goods, etc)
rational choice theory people act on basis of calculated self-interest to increase own gains; economic activities benefitial to one person is usually negative for others
political economy study of how communities pursue collective economic goals and deal with conflicts over economic factors in authoritarian way by government; relationship btw economy and state; how does eco affect politcs and vice versa
laissez-faire captialism leaves people alone in business; true form: no gov regulation (business= good, workers=bad), most unregulated eco
market economy ecosys where prices are determined by supply and demand "invisible hand"; Adam Smith, David Ricardo (iron law of wages), Malthus (not enough food)
social darwinism society as whole would only improve if it encouraged individual economic achievement
centrally planned economies societ union - all factories, farms, services controlled by gov agencies; fusion of state and economy, aka "command economy;" facilitates poli elites control over country
mixed economies combines private & state involvement; diff degrees of capitalism; gov control can be direct or indirect
keynesianism state's use of FISCAL AND MONETARY measures, public spending to promote growht in an economy in an eco dominated by private enterprise
public enterprises state-owned firms; manages work force employed directly by state
privatization transfer of state-owned enterprises to private
bureaucratic coordination state plays direct and constant role in coordinating activities of private firms for natl. purposes
welfare states type of mix eco where state assumes responsibility of welfare of population; ex: Nazi, New Deal; expanded post WWII; staglation = doubts in system; have difficulty coming up with the $
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) size & structure of eco; measure of eco size, $ value of all goods & services produced by a country in a year; not value of indiv. wealth or wealth of country, measure of productivity; can be misleading - difficult to give value of every eco affair
PPP (Purchasing Price Parity doesn't account real value of natl currencies, over or undervalued relative to US$; to counteract, use this which corrects for anomalies in value of diff currencies; calculates GDP according ot purchasing power of natl currentcy
Per capita GDP GDP most common of natl eco wealth, but doesn't account for pop size; this gives better idea of relative eco wealth in different countries; general gauge okay but can be misleading w/top 1% wealthiest
inflation general increase in nation's price levels; tested by CPI (Consumer Price Index)
deflation general decrease in nation's price levels
staglation stagnant eco growht and inflation
fiscal policy spend and taxing; purview of national legislature with greater or lesser guidance by executive
monetary policy control interest rates and money supply; conducted by central band; may/not have less or greater autonomy
Questions to ask about political economy: What produce? How? For whom? How they answer = economic system
capitalism means of production, privately owned; supply/demand and prices; business free to direct resources into activities promising greatest profits; limited gov intervention; susceptible to business cycle (boom/bust)
Adam Smith father of capitalism; Wealth of Nations = advantages of free market economy; laissez-faire; competition based on supply/demand "invisible hand"
socialism gov. owned/operated, prices playing major role in allocation of resources; markets have some control; democracies w/elected officials, people direct allocation at resources in key industries; social-welfare state post WWII, combines socialism & capitalism
communism pure= poli & eco control; property=collectively owned, labor for common good of community; "dictatorship of proletariat"= marx, Engles, becomes dictatorship; "COMMAND ECONOMIES" aspects of eco under direction of communist leaders
command economy right to own property greatly restricted; industry owned by gov; competition and profit prohibited
market economy right to own property = accepted, guaranteed; most include private owned by individual; competition/profit are not controlled by gov
neoliberal(ism) big L Liberal, harking back to Adam Smith; laissez-faire style economics; less government involvement and control
Keynesian Fiscal Policies Great Depression= failure of laissez-faire; instability of great d. from collapse of business spending could be offset by increased gov spending; keynesian eco came to stand for gov fiscal policies (taxing and spending policies) to stimulate the economy
monetarism (monitary policy) control of money supply matters most cuz of it's impact on overal state of economy; reaction to inefficiencies of fiscal policies of Key-welfare state; MILTON FRIEDMAN; federal reserve should let money supply grow @ constant rate to avoid destablizing eco
quality of life index relate to quality of life that affect policies
Human Development Index (HDI) ranks countries as developed, developing, under-developed on per capita GDP, education, life expectancy
GINI index measures income inequality; higher # over 0 = higher the inequality and the score of 1.0 (of 100) = total inequality where only 1 person controls all of a country's income
Gender Related Development Index (GDI) indicator of standard of living in country among men and women; life expectancy, education level, estimated earned income; used with HDI
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM): inequalities between women and men in a country based on political participation and decision making, economic participation and decision making; power over eco resources
Corruption Perception Index (CPI) published annually, ranks countries on scale of 0-100 to degree of corruption perceived among public officials; higher = less corruption
Environmental Performance Index (EPI) quantify and numerically benchmarking enviro performance of a country's policies
Freedom in World ranking state of political rights and civil liberties around the world used by policy makers, journalists; 1.0-2.5 = free; 3.0-5.0 = partly free; 5.0-70 = not free
ideologies political culture shapes the ideologies; set of beliefs about function of politics and society; political values
elements of ideologies perception, evaluation, perscription, movement
perception things are going wrong, society going down wrong path
evauluation of why; criticism of all or part of system
prescription or cure for problem; moderate ideologies advocate reforms; extremists urge revolution and overthrow of current system
movement formed to carry out cure; w/out party/movement, ideologies are just talk
types of ideologies liberalism, communism, socialism, fascism, religious belifes
liberalism emphasis on individual political and economic freedom; max freedom for all: speech, religion, association; citizens have right to disagree w/state decisions and act to change decisions of their leaders; public opinion generally has some political impact
communism values equality over freedom; lib.dems are created by rich for rich; eliminate inequality and expolit by takeover of all resources of state; state insures eco equality, no private ownership; individual liberties give way to needs of society as whole,
socialism value equality, influenced by value of freedom; unlike comm, accept private ownership, free market ideas; unlike dem state has strong role in regulating eco and providing benefits to public (ensure measure of equality); strong in Europe
fascism ultranationalism, loyality to charismatic leader; accepts idea that people/groups have degrees of inferiority; state has right ot mold society and eco to eliminate obstacles (incl people) that might weaken it
religious beliefs source of group identity; adv. dems have separation of church and state, but religion serves as basis for interest gorups and voluntary associations w/in civil society; plays varying roles
attitudes toward political change marxist, social democratic, progressive, moderate, conservative, libertarian, reactionary
radicalism belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made in existing poli sys; current sys can't be saved, overturn and replaces w/something better
liberalism reform and change rather than revolution; liberal attitude doesn't mean liberalism as poli ideology; system is broken, but work through sys, not against; gradual change is best
conservatism less supportive of change in general; change as disruptive, can bright unforeseen outcomes; state/regime= important sources of law&order that might be threatened by making significant changes
reactionary beliefs further to protect against change than conservative beliefs; oppose revolution and refrom, find status quo unacceptable; turn back clock to earlier era, reinstate old institutions; more willing to use violence than liberals or conservatives
social democrats historically supported nationalization of major industries, stopped short of overthrow of capitalism; today, abandoned nationalization, concentrating on benefits of social welfare state
marxists advocate gaining control of government in name of working class; collective ownership of property
hybrid economy social democratic/Marxist
conservative smaller government supporting stronger property rights, less regulation of economy, less income redistribution; less involved, no dramatic change
liberatarian emphasize minimal role for government in people's lives; oppose gov poli desinged to remake society, like efforts @ income/wealth redistribution
reactionaries advocate a return to a more traditional society; turning clock back
policymaking pivotal process where bill becomes law, edicts issued by rules
constitution set of rules/principles adopted by gov; doesn't need to be one document; based on rule of law; decision rules
rule of law government can't act if not authoritized by law (gov not above law)
decision rules gov how decisions are made; confers power to propose policies to specific groups of institutions; inclusive or exclusive
inclusive decision rules more voters involved; more protection of rights of minorities, prevents hasty decisions
exclusive decision rules less voters involved
making consitutions post WWII period & fall of SU, # of new govs and constitutions created; rise to debate about powers that they confer on certain branches of gov and efficacy
democracy vs authoritarian most importatn distinction; dem= indirect participation in policymaking, delegated to elected officials; author= policymaking chosen by military councils, hereditary families, dominant parties; citizens either ignored/pressed into symbolic assent of polic
differences in decision making dimensions 1. separation of powers among different branches of gov 2. geographic distribution of authority btw central (natl) gov and subnational units 3. limitations of gov authority
separation of powers: democratic president exec & leg separate; branches have fixed terms; ultimate power to authorize legislation in leg. branch; executive powers of prez can vary; coordination essential btw branches; Mexico, Nigeria
separation of powers: parliamentary system exec & leg interdependent; only leg directly elected; PM/cabinet emerge from leg; neither branch has fixed term but can be voted out of office @ any time when PM fails vote of confidence; less likely to be divided (fusion of powers) - no separation
separation of powers: semipresident regimes combines both; prez & leg separately elected in prez system, prez has power to dissolve leg like pari sys; PM/cabinet may be appointed by prez, as in prez pregimes, but are subject to dissmissal by the leg as under parl; Russia
geographical distributions of government power unitary, federal, confederal
unitary most common; power in concentrated in one geo. location; GB, China, Iran
federal national gov shares power w/sub-national units; Russia, Mexico, Nigeria
confederal power is shared equally among sub-national units; Switzerland
limitations on gov power dems have some; written constitution, statutes, customs are basis of many limits on constit. regimes; civil rights protected by gov; courts= independent, judicial review, deter if gov have exceeded powers allocated by constitution
GB's constitution acts of Parliament, common law, tradition; far less decision rules than US
stare decisis previous judicial decisions create binding precedence
public policy authoritative public decisions that govs make; output or activity of political institutions
criteria used to judge political parties based on normative citeria - "political goods and values"
how do govs differ as producers of goods and services? communist= gov controls industries as private ownership not allowed (China exception); capitalist= free market societies, gov controls small # of producers of goods/services; socialist=gov often owns large # of critical producers of goods and services
4 outputs of pub policies extraction of resources; distribution of monetary goods and services; regulation of behavior; symbolic policies
extraction taxation- most common, no immediate benefit; progressives (higher income, higher the tax) vs regressive (lower income, affects you more); issue: equity (how %, who gets benefits)
direct taxation income and property tax
indirect tax sales, VAT, excise taxes, customs duties
quantity of what is / who benefits (devolped vs developing) developed= allocate 50% of gov expenditures to education, health and welfare; developing countries spend very little on health and education (Catch 22); spending on natl security varies among developed and developing countries depending on threats
trends in distribution of policies since 20th century + in distrib poli, esp in "welfare states;" emphasize achieving equity by providing services (old age pensions, health care), distribute benefits accompanied by high rates of taxation
regulation excercise of political control over behavior of indiv and groups in society; grown due to demands from industrialization; 1- aspect degree; 2- limitations on enforcement; 3- sanctions used to compel compliance
symbolic policies justify legitimacy - further natl identity, civil pride, gov trust; encourage citizens to pay taxes, comply w/laws; ranges from appeals by leader to parades, indoctrination, monuments, etc
measures domestic welfare outcomes examine effectiveness of pub.poli by examining welfare outcomes (sanitation, health, education); developed countries have higher literacy rates, lower mortality, fertility rates than developing countries do
measure domestic security outcomes w/out, conduct of personal, economic, civil life impossible;
high crime rates development of rural migration into cities, inequality of incomes, unemployment
low crime rates strong and fair law enforcement; Japan = homogeneous and hierarchical
why do international outputs vary spending on intnl activities, economy, diplomatic etc have strong effects; economic aid may be tied to domestic production & boost domestic eco benefiting the gov w/higher taxes; military outputs = strong defense but limit welfare outputs
issues w/public policy equity, conflict/debate, effectiveness
equity how fair are policies to citizens; equally or disproportionate advantages or burden; ex: taxes
conflict/debate how public policies address c/d over issues in society; policies reflect majority or small interest groups; ex: gay rights, civil rights
effectiveness how effective are govs in the implementation of public policies; ex: Obamacare
democratization transition from nondemocracy -> procedural democracy -> substantive democracy
conditions for democracy 1. selection of elites based on free/fair elections; 2. poli parties free to exist/compete 3. due process/transparency in gov polimaking 4. all citizens have civil/pli rights, incl vote 5. powerful, indie judiciary, protect citizen rights
procedural (transitional) democracy newly established and are lacking 1 or more conditions for dem gov; Nigeria, Russia
consolidated (substantive) democracy long established dem institutions w/adherence to dem principles; GB
preconditions for consolidation democracy 1. civil society/civil culture; 2. poli society of rules, institutions, processes; 3. rule of law; 4. professional, permanent, apolitical bureaucracy; 5. eco society has freedom w/in limits
civil society web of membership in social and political groups; free of state control, outside state; web of interest groups outside gov that is conducive to dem, can be groups or individuals; HOLDS GOV ACCOUNTABLE
qualifications of democracy 1. can be inequitable; 2. no country is 100%; 3. contentiousness of issues often result in loser believing decision is illegitimate; 4. eco inequalities stack deck against poor; 5. diff institutional types of
democratization process by which a nation-state moves from non-democracy thru procedural to fully consolidated substantive dem
3 big times of democratization 1. 19/20th century (US, UK, France, Canada, etc) 2. post WWII, empires crumbled and fascism failed 3. 1970-90s communism and USSR failed, authoritarian regimes saw corrupt leaders lose legitimacy
illiberal democracy the appearance of dem, Potemkin Village; underlying factors don't exist to much extent
electoral authoritarian non-democracies who pretend to be democratic
Created by: seniors14



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