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concentration of bacteria

Bacteria single cell organism. Can carry out all the functions of life on its on in the right condition
Identification of Bacteria shape, cell wall structure, gram-positive, gram negative, aerobic and anaerobic
Aerobic Grows Only in the Presence of Oxygen
Anaerobic Grows Only in the Absence of Oxygen
Spore Forming Pathogenic Bacteria Bacillus family, Clostridium family
Bacillus family Anthrax
Clostridium family Tetanus, difficile, prefringens, botulism
What Year Was the Electron Microscope Invented 1941
Viruses smallest known agent that cause disease infections usually self-limiting. They must've made a living cell in order to carry out the process life.
Protozoa single celled parasite the single celled parasite animals exist everywhere in nature in some form.
Disease produce by Protozoa Malaria, Africa sleeping disease, Amebic dysentery
Fungi fungi responsible for some of the most common disease in humans many are harmless but from all responsible for infections. Belonging to the plant kingdom
Types of Fungal Infections respiratory infections, thrush, barbers itch, Athlete's foot, Jock itch, ringworm
Infectious Process progressive course incubation. Pronominal stage illness stage, Convalescence
Localized Proper care controls the spread and minimized illness wound infection
Systemic infection that affects the entire body can be fatal
Incubation Period interval between invasion by pathogens appearance of first symptoms. can be contagious
Prodromnal stage From onset of nonspecific signs symptoms to appearance of more Pacific symptoms.
Illness Stage Signs/symptoms manifest which are specific to the infection.
Convalescence Acute symptoms resolve; health is returning to normal
Inflammation the protective response of body tissues to irritation, injury, or invasion by pathogen
Cardinal signs of Inflammation: Erythema,Edema,Heat,pain or tenderness, and Loss of function May be triggered by physical agents, chemical agents, or microorganisms
Inflammatory Response The body’s cellular response to injury or infection
Systemic signs of inflammation fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and lymph node enlargement
Antibiotic resistant pathogens: MRSA Methycillin Resistant Staph aureus VRSA Vancomycin Resistant Staph Aureus VRE Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus TB
Factors Affecting Resistance /Infection Process Age,Stress, emotional factors,Nutritional status,Habits—e.g., smoking, substance abuse, exercise,Heredity,Disease processes
Environmental factors/Infection Process Medical therapies– e.g., steroids, antibiotics, cancer treatments, organ transplant anti-rejection drugs, etc.
Preventing an Infection Standard Precautions,Transmission-Based Precautions,Natural immunity/resistance, Immunization,Good health habits--Keeping your resistance high
Community level/Preventing an Infection Sanitation, clean water, pest control, safe agriculture and food handling practices, etc.
Fecal Pathogens Transmitted through fecal—oral route, by means of: Contaminated water, inadequate sewage management.
Terms r/t Disease Acute,Chronic,Congenital,Hereditary Morbidity: incidence of a disease (expressed as ratio) Mortality: death rate (expressed as ratio) Idiopathic: of unknown origin
Types of Nosocomial Risk Iatrogenic factors, Organizational factors, Patient factors
Nosocomial Infection:Risk Factors a large number of highly susceptible people, people carrying pathogens. Healthcare workers from patient to patient,transmitting microbes
Predisposing Factors poor health,impaired defenses,Advanced age, Premature birth,Immunocompromised, Acute illness, burns, trauma,Chronic disease
“The Father of Aseptic Technique Joseph Lister (1827 – 1912)
Predisposing Factors Invasive lines and procedures IV lines, Catheters, Intubation tubes, Tracheostomy, Surgical drains
Predisposing Factors Treatments Blood transfusions, Parenteral nutrition, Remaining in a recumbent position
Most Frequently Occurring Nosocomial Infections Urinary tract infections– E. coli Respiratory infections-- pneumonia Infection of surgical wounds Blood infection—bacteremia Colitis-- diarrhea
Infection Control Team Infection Control Practitioner/Professional Nurses who are specially trained in infection control
Immunocompetence The ability of an immune system to mobilize and deploy its antibodies and other responses to stimulation by an antigen.
Immunocompromise: A state of lowered resistance to disease.
Immunity: Being unaffected by a particular disease or condition.
Naturally acquired: Innate body defenses, heredity Acquired after an infection
Artificially acquired: Acquired through vaccination
Antigen: A substance that is recognized by the body as foreign, and provokes antibody production.
Antibody: A protein molecule formed in response to a foreign substance.
The Immune Response:4 “R’s” Recognize, Respond, Remember, Regulate
Patient Teaching For Infection Control The nurse will need to educate patient about the nature of infection and the techniques to use in planning or controlling its spread
Infection control for home and hospice settings Prevention of infection Hand washing, food preparation, lines, waste containers, body fluid spills
Created by: shay7777