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Chapter 3&4 Vocabulary

Culture the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and belifs
Population Density the average number of people living in a givin area
Birthrate the number of live births each year per 1000 people
Immigrant a person who moves into a country
Emigrant a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
Urbanization the growth of city populations
Rural of, or characteristics of, the countryside
Culture Hearth a place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
Culture Convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
Diffusion the process by which a culture element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
Cultural Divergence the restriction of a cultue from outside influences
Sovereignty a countrys freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
Unitary System a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
Federation a government stucture in which some powers are givin to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
Confederation a system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
Authoritarian descrptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
Dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person
Totalitarianism a system of government in which a cenral authority controls all aspects of society
Monarchy a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- king, queen, shah, or sultan- whoses position is usally inherited
Democracy a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
Traditional Economy an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy
Market Economy an economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
Command Economy an economic system thatis controlled by a single central government
Natural Resources a material in the natural enviroment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
Renewable Resources a natural resource that the enviroment continues to supply or replace as it is used
Nonrenewable Resources a natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
Fossil Fuel any one of tbe several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of accient plants and animals used for food
Nuclear Energy a type of energy produced by fission- splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
Water Power energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
Geothermal Energy energy prodused from the earth's intence interior heat
Solar Energy energy produced by the sun
Primary Economic Activity takes or uses natural resourses directly, such as fishing or mining
Subsistence Farming farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
Commercial Farming the raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
Secondary Economic Activity people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value
Cottage Indusrty a small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near peoples homes
Commercial Industry a large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people many people and produces large quantities of goods
Tertiary Economic Activity people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
Quaternary Economic Activity focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research
Export an item that is sent out of the country for sale
Import an item that is brought in to a country for sale
Created by: laurengrawunder