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Sociology Exam: 1

Ch. 1,2,5

Side ASide B
Core values of society: achievement, individualism, hard work, efficiency, science, material, freedom, democracy, equality, group superiority
cultural capital education, attitudes, etc. that can either raise or lower societal status
What's culture? shared set of beliefs + attitudes among a group of people
Private sector media: 1)owned by small group of people; 2)advertising is primary source of revenue; 3)relies on government; 4)threatened by large corporations; 5)ebiquity of anticommunist sentiment
2 main types of culture: material and nonmaterial
nonmaterial culture
material culture
the 2 types of research: qualitative + quantitative
societal institutions in U.S.(list) GET FERMM: govt., economy, technology; family, education, religion, media, and medical
Who coined the term "sociology?" Compte
Sci. method steps in Sociology: 1)Select topic; 2)Define problem; 3)Literature review; 4)Form hypothesis; 5) Create a research model.; 6)Collect data; 7)Analyze your results.; 8)Share your results.
validity Extent to which your experimental method measures what you intended it to measure
spurious relationship When 2 things/variable seem to be related, but really--- there's a 3rd, less obvious variable causing what's going on; #churches and number of homicides--- 3rd variable: population=more churches and also more homicides(but separately)
George Meade studied facial expressions' and gestures' different meanings in diff. countries
Herbert Blumer Meade's student; coined "symbolic interaction"
Max Weber hard work, faith, prosperity will cause ppl. to work hard + get far in society; religion is something to believe in + therefore makes cohesion in society
The main theories of sociology(conflicts): symbolic interactionism theory, structural interactionism theory, conflict theory
symbolic interactionism we create personal ID through interactions w/ others; communication through symbols(UT communicated by giant "T"); we act diff. in diff. interactions we have in society
achieved characteristics characteristics one has worked to obtain; college acceptance
ascribed characteristics characteristics one's born w/; race
Erving Hoffman We're all actors w/ a role in society. Role changes depending on time, place, + audience; presentation of self-efforts to create impressions in other people's minds; soc. behavior described in language of theater
The main concepts of structural functionalism: society viewed as a system; certain functional requirements must be met for a society to function; social structures exist b/c they serve a function
Charles Cooley "Looking GLass"; process where indiv. use other people as mirrors.; conceptions of ourselves based on what's reflected back to us by them or what we think is; see ourselves through eyes of other ppl
Bourdieu French soiologist; some things we do socially as we grow up become so natural we don't even realize we do them; tastes, preferences, skills,etc.--- habitus
tool kit set of symbolic devices we learn through our culture + apply to our lives; similar cultures have similar tool kits
communication sharing meaningful info. between ppl. or groups
language comprehensive words + symbols that represent concepts
subculture relatively small groups of ppl. whose affiliations are based on shared beliefs + practices; can be formed around activities or interests; sports fans
counterculture ideals, attitudes, + behaviors that directly go AGAINST our culture; "frowned-upon" cultures; terrorist groups, gangs
The things to think abt. when forming research model: 1)access to resources; 2)access to your subjects; 3)purpose of research; 4)researchers' background and training
Emile Durkheim official father of scoiology; social integration; famous for study on suicide; more social integration = less likely to commit suicide; Protestants more likely than Catholics
social integration degree to which members of agroup feel united by social bonds
organic solidarity We depend on the division of labor to keep our society going; "I need you to do your job so I can do mine."
mechanical solidarity Unity from performing similar tasks + working toward same cohesive goal
Karl Marx Conflict Theory; Communist Manifesto
Conflict Theory- Burgeoisie: owners of means of production(they have the control + power in society)
Conflict Theory- Proletariate: exploited through force + economics; the common people
Conflict Theory- Petty Burogeoisie: very wealthy class, the in-between; have power but they don't own the means of production; some celebrities
Conflict Theory roles in order of highest amt. of power: Bourogeoisie; Petty Bourogeoisie; Proletariate
Communist Manifesto replace capitalism w/ socialism; capitalism-->socialism-->communism;gradual process
survey info. that's obtained by asking standardized questions
sample indiv. groups that are intended to be studied
random sample everyone in target population has same chance of being in your sample; selecting a UT freshman
stratified random sample everyone in selected subgroup has same chance of being in sample; selecting a female UT freshman
Created by: hcmeek