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Enviro. 1-4

Environment a sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life
Environmental Science the field that looks at interactions among humans and nature
Biotic the living part of the Earth (animals, plants, microorganisms)
Abiotic the non-living part of the Earth (soil, air, water, sunlight)
Ecosystem the living and non-living components of a particular place on Earth
Environmental Indicators describe the current state of the environment
5 Environmental Indicators Biological diversity; Food production; Average global surface temperature and carbon dioxide concentration; Human population; and Resource depletion.
Biodiversity the variety of life formed in an environment. Includes: Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecosystem diversity
Genetic Diversity A measure of the genetic variation found among individuals in a population. Populations with high genetic diversity are better able to respond to environmental changes than populations with lower genetic diversity
Species Diversity The number of species in a region or in a particular type of habitat
Ecosystem Diversity The number of species in a region or in a particular type of habitat
Food Production Our ability to grow food to nourish the entire human population
Anthropogenic When the environmental indicator is caused by human activities.
Human Population Over one million additional people are added to the Earth every five days. 6.8 billion people on earth
Resource Depletion As the human population grows, the resources necessary for our survival become increasingly depleted. coal, oil, and uranium are finite in quantity and cannot be renewed or reused. aluminum or copper also exist in finite amounts but can be recycled.
Sustainability : the practice of living on Earth in a way that allows humans to use resources without depriving future generations of those resources.
Sustainable Development balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations.
In order to live sustainably: Environmental systems must not be damaged beyond their ability to recover. Renewable resources must not be depleted faster than they can regenerate. Nonrenewable resources must be used sparingly.
Ecological Footprint a measure of how much a person consumes, expressed in area of land.
The Scientific Method 1. Observations and questions 2. Hypothesis 3. Collecting data 4. Interpreting results 5. Disseminating findings
Theory a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple researchers and is widely accepted.
Natural Law : when a theory has been tested multiple times and there are no known exceptions
Controlled Experiment an experiment conducted in controlled conditions, such as in a laboratory.
Natural Experiment when a natural event, such as a volcano, acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem
Matter anything that occupies space and has mass. It is the “stuff” that makes up the universe
Mass a measure of the amount of matter an object contains.
Weight the force that results from the action of gravity on mass.
Atom the smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element
Molecule a particle containing more than one atom.
Element : a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler, and different components. Elements can exist as solids, liquids or gases.
Compounds molecules that contain more than one element.
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element.
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in an element
Isotopes : atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons, and therefore different atomic masses
Ionic Bonds elements that form compounds by transferring electrons from one element to another. When this transfer happens, one atom becomes electron deficient (positively charged) and one atom becomes electron rich (negatively charged).
Hydrogen Bonds a weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on a different molecule. Water is known as a polar molecule.
Surface Tension the result of cohesion between water molecules at the surface of a body of water.
Capillary Action when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
Acid a substance that contributes hydrogen ions (H+) to a solution
Base a substance that contributes hydroxide ions (OH-) to a solution
pH Scale Indicates the strength of acids and bases. pH 7 is neutral. Above 7 is basic. Below 7 is acidic.
Chemical Reaction when atoms separate from the molecules of which they are a part or recombine with other molecules.
Law of Conservation of Matter matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form.
Inorganic Compounds compounds that do not contain carbon, or contain carbon only bound to elements other than hydrogen.
Organic Compounds compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
Carbohydrates compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. For example, C6H12O6.
Proteins made up of long chains of nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids
Nucleic Acids organic compounds found in all living cells. DNA & RNA
Lipids : biological molecules that do not mix with water. For example, fats, oils, waxes, and steroid hormones.
Energy the ability to do work.
Power the rate at which work is done. energy = power x time
Kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
Chemical energy potential energy contained in chemical bonds
Temperature the measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules making up a substance.
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed
Photosynthesis Reactant Energy ---> Product Energy + Light Energy
Energy efficiency the ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system
Second Law of Thermodynamics When energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes
Open system exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
Closed system matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur
Steady state when input equals output, it is said to be in a steady state.
Negative Feedback Loops when a system responds to change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
Positive Feedback Loops when a system responds to change by increasing the rate at which the change is occurring
Producers/Autotrophs are able to use the sun’s energy to produce usable energy through the process called photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration the process by which other organisms gain energy from eating the tissues of producers. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --->Energy + 6 H2O + 6 CO2
Primary Consumers/Herbivores consume producers
Secondary Consumers/Carnivores obtain their energy by eating primary consumers.
Tertiary Consumers/Carnivores eat secondary consumers.
Food Chain The sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) The total amount of solar energy that the producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time.
Net Primary Productivity (NPP) The energy captured (GPP) minus the energy respired by producers.
Biomass The energy in an ecosystem is measured in terms of biomass
Standing Crop The amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time.
Ecological Efficiency The proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another.
Trophic Pyramid The representation of the distribution of biomass among trophic levels.
4 Subsystems of Earth Geosphere (soil and rock) Hydrosphere (water in all its forms) Atmosphere (gases surrounding the geosphere) Biosphere (living things)
Biosphere The combination of all ecosystems on Earth. It forms a shell around the surface of the Earth
Hydrological Cycles The movement of water through the biosphere, within and between ecosystems alone or involving biogeochemical cycles.
Biogeochemical Cycles The movement of matter within and between ecosystems involving biological, geological, and chemical processes.
Evaporation The process where liquid water transforms into its gaseous form, water vapor
Transpiration The process where plants release water from their leaves into the atmosphere.
Evaportranspiration The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration.
Runoff Water moving over the land surface into streams and rivers, eventually to the ocean
Ground Water Water within porous sub-surface materials, either surfacing or reaching the ocean.
Watershed All of the land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake or wetland. A watershed represents a specific, common area of land within which scientists may conduct ecological studies.
Macronutrients The elements N, K, Mg, Ca, and S
Disturbance an event caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents that results in changes in population size or community composition.
Natural Ecosystem Disturbances hurricanes, ice storms, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires
Anthropogenic Ecosystem Disturbances human settlements, agriculture, air and water pollution, clear-cutting of forests, and strip mining.
Resistance a measure of how much a disturbance can affect the flows of energy and matter.
Resilience The rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance
Restoration Ecology A new scientific discipline that is focused on restoring damaged ecosystems
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis states that ecosystems which experience intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low levels of disturbance.
Instrumental Value value as a tool to people by providing ecosystem services. These can be quantified.
Intrinsic Value value independent of any benefit accruing to humans. These cannot be quantified.
Provisions Goods that humans can use directly.
Regulating Services The service provided by natural systems that helps regulate environmental conditions
Support Systems The support services that natural ecosystems provide such as pollination, natural filters, and pest control.
Cultural Services Ecosystems provide cultural or aesthetic benefits to many people.
Weather the short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area. These include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure.
Climate The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period― typically several decades.
Unequal Heating of the Earth warming does not occur evenly across the planet. a result of The variation in angle at which the Sun’s rays strike, The amount of SA over which the Sun’s rays are distributed,Some areas more solar energy than others
4 Properties of Atmospheric Movement Denisty, Water vapor capacity, Adiabatic heating or cooling, Latent heat release
Density less-dense air rises, denser air sinks
Water Vapor Capacity warm air has a higher capacity for water vapor than cold air.
Adiabatic heating or cooling as air rises in the atmosphere its pressure decreases and the air expands.Conversely, as air sinks, the pressure increases and the air decreases in volume.
Latent Heat Release when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water and energy is released.
Atmospheric Convection Currents global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of Earth.
Hadley Cells the convection currents that cycle between the equator and 30 north and south.
Intertropical convergence (ITCZ) the area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight and where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge.
Polar Cells the convection currents that are formed by air that rises at 60 north and south and sinks at the poles (90 north and south).
Coriolis Effect the deflection of an object’s path due to Earth’s rotation.
Causes of the movement of water (1) density, (2) gravity, (3) prevailing winds, (4) the Coriolis effect, and (5) the geographic location
Tundra high elevations, cold, treeless biome with low-growing vegetation. In winter, the soil is completely frozen. The underlying subsoil, known as permafrost, is an impermeable.
Boreal Forests subarctic biome, very cold, and plant growth is constrained by temperature than precipitation. Forests are made up primarily of evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and the short growing seasons. soil is nutrient-poor due to slow decomposition
Temperate Rainforest Moderate temperatures, high precipitation typify the temperate rainforest. coastal biome. This biome has a nearly 12-month growing season where winters are rainy and summers are foggy. supports the growth of very large trees.
Temperate Seasonal Forest Receive over 1 meter of precipitation annually. Dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees such as beech, maple, oak, and hickory. Warmer summer temperatures favor decomposition, so soils generally contain more nutrients than those of boreal forests
Woodland/Shrub land Hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters are characteristic of this biome. There is a 12-month growing season, but plant growth is constrained by low precipitation in summer and by relatively low temperatures in winter. Wildfires are common.
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert lowest average annual precipitation of any temperate biome. Cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers. Plant growth is constrained by both insufficient rain in summer and cold temperatures in winter
Tropical Seasonal Forest Warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons. Soil in this biome is fairly fertile and can be farmed due to high decomposition rates.
Aquatic Climate Biomes Categorized by salinity, depth, and water flow.
Littoral Zones the shallow area of water near the shore where algae and emergent plants grow
Limnetic Zone open water, where rooted plants cannot survive. Phytoplankton are the only photosynthetic organisms. Therefore, this zone extends only to as deep as sunlight can penetrate.
Profundal Zone the zone below where sunlight can penetrate and therefore producers cannot survive.
Benthic Zone the muddy bottom of a lake or pond beneath the limnetic and profundal zones
The Open Ocean Biome The depth that light can penetrate in the open ocean is dependent on the amount of sediment and algae suspended in the water.
Photic Zone the zone that receives enough light to allow photosynthesis to occur
Aphotic Zone the deeper water that lacks sufficient light for photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis the process that occurs in the aphotic zone when some species of bacteria use methane and hydrogen sulfide to generate energy
Created by: abuontempo