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PHAR 162 exam 1

Code of ethics Detailed, explicit, operational blueprint of norms of professional conduct, a public recital of desirable and undesirable actions having an impact on the character of a profession and its functional ability.
Early 19th Century pharmacy No schools, no practice acts, no regulation on who can run one or regulation on distribution. Quackery!
:Year the first local pharmaceutical association was established 1821
Year the first school of pharmacy was established 1848 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy
Year the first national pharmacy association was establisehd 1852 APhA in Philadelphia
Year the first pharmacy code of ethics was established 1852
Focus of 1852 Code of Ethics Fair business dealings, discounting quackery, physician-pharmacist relationship
Focus of 1922 Code of Ethics Establish duties of pharmacist, created nondisclosure of prescription information
Focus of 1952 Code of Ethics Established statement of principles, attempt to self-regulate unprofessional misconduct. Too broadly written statement.
Focus of 1969 Code of Ethics Tightened wording of principles. Altered wording of confidentiality to disclose info where best interest of patient requires or law demands. Can't dispense low quality products.
1994 Code of Ethics From JCPP for all professional organizations to follow, took 2 years to develop.
Focus of 1994 Code of Ethics Avoid confines of detailed approach, uses general recommendations and general norms
Contents of 1994 Code of Ethics Preamble and 8 principles (9 components all together)
1994 Code of Ethics Preamble Pharmacists to assist (all) individuals in making best use of medications. Pharmacy based on moral obligation and virtues (unique among health professions)
Principle 1 of Code of Ethics Respect covenantal relationship between patient and pharmacist
Principle II of Code of Ethics Promote good of every patient in caring, compassionate, and confidential manner. (beneficence)
Principle III of Code of Ethics Respect autonomy and dignity of each patient. (Autonomy)
Principle IV of Code of Ethics Act with honesty and integrity in professional relationships. (Veracity/Honesty)
Principle V of Code of Ethics Maintain professional competence
Principle VI of Code of Ethics Respect values and abilities of colleagues and other health professionals
Principle VII of Code of Ethics Serve individual, community and societal needs
Principle VIII of Code of Ethics Seek justice in the distribution of health resources (Justice)
Define value Things considered good or beneficial-principles that motivate us in making decisions when we are aligned with our true selves (relative)
Define belief Assumptions we hold to be true (relative)
Define moral Person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do (culturally defined)
Define right Natural or bestowed (not relative!)
Define character Combination of qualities or features that distinguishes a person
Define virtue/vice ways in which we define character of a person
Define principle General characteristics of actions that make them morally right (independent of the character)
Define duty "That which is owing" - sense of moral commitment or obligation to someone or something, should result in action
Define moral judgement What is good or bad, having certain characteristics defined by consequentialism, deontological ethics, or other fundamental ethical school of thought
Define nonmoral judgement Based on personal preferences or beliefs
Two Western thoughts regarding ethical principles in normative ethics Consequentialism and deontological ethics
Consequentialism Looks at the consequences of the act: good acts are ones that produce good consequences, bad acts are ones that produce bad consequences
Deontological Ethics Duty-Based ethics. Rightness and wrongness are inherent in the act itself independent of the consequences
Two principles of consequentialism Nonmalifence and benefice
Define nonmalificence Actions are wrong insofar as they produce bad outcomes
Define benefice Actions are right insofar as they produce benefits
Classic Utilitarianism Form of consequentialism that determines which acts are right by figuring the net good of consequences minus bad consequences for each person affected and then addition to find the total net good. (indifferent to who obtains the benefits and harms)
Hippocratic Ethics Focuses on individual patient and sometimes gives special weight to avoiding harms
6 ethical principles (duties) that make up deontological ethics Justice, Veracity, Fidelity, Autonomy, Avoidance of Killing, Beneficence
Justice Upholding moral and legal principles with integrity-unequal distribution of goods is wrong.
Autonomy persons and their beliefs be respected even if doing so will not produce the most good
Veracity Always telling the truth (telling a lie is wrong in itself)
Fidelity Keeping promises and commitments
Beneficence Pharmacist should act so as to benefit the patient
Rules-Situation Debate Conflict between those who believe the rules themselves should be defining factor and those who consider the situation itself to be the most critical determination of moral rightness
Rigorists (Deontologist) Rules should never be violated. (immobilized when 2 rules conflict)
"Rules-of-Practice" Rules should just be applied rather than each case be evaluated from scratch. Open to exceptions to the rules.
Situationalist Consider every situation unique but willing to be guided by moral rules
Antinomians "Against rules" - immobilized when they treat a situation so brand new that no moral help gained from past experiences
6-step ethical decision-making model 1. Respond to "sense" 2. Gather info 3. Identify ethical problem 4. Determine who should be involved 5. Determine alternatives 6. Choose an alternative
Created by: steponmegrace