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Nutrition for HC

Nutrition A science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food.
Nutrients Substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes.
Processed foods A food that has been specifically treated or changed from its natural state either at home or in a processing plant.
Essential nutrient A nutrient that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make it or cannot make it in sufficient quantities to satisfy its needs. Fo
Fortified food Food to which one or more nutrients have been added.
Enriched grains Grain products to which specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron have been added.
Dietary supplement A product intended for ingestion in the diet that contains one or more of the following: vitamins, minerals, plant-derived substances, amino acids, and concetntrates or extracts.
Phytochemical A substance found in plant foods that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties.
Zoochemical A substance found in animal foods that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties.
Energy-yielding nutrient A nutrient that can be metabolized to provide energy in the body.
Macroutrient A nutrient needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and the energy-yielding nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Micronutrient A nutrient needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals.
Organic molecule A molecule that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen.
Inorganic molecule A molecule that contains no carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Kilocalorie (kcalorie) The unit of heat used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius
Kilojoules (kjoule) A unit of work that can be used to express energy intake and energy output. It is that amount of work required to move an object weighing 1 kg a distance of 1m under the force of gravity.
Homeostasis A physiological state in which a stable internal body environment is maintained.
Metabolism The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism.
Malnutrition Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal.
Undernutrtion Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake below that which meets nutritional needs.
Overnutrition Poor nutritional status resulting from an energy or nutrient intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.
Genes Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits.
Nutrigenomics The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.
Nutrient density An evaluation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to the calories it provides.
Scientific method The general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us.
Hypothesis An educated guess made to explain an observation or to answer a question.
Theory An explanation based on scientific study and reasoning.
Epidemiology The study of th interrelationships between health and disease and other factors in the environments or lifestyle of different populations.
Correlation Two or more factors occurring together.
Clinical Trial A study of a population in which there is an experimental manipulation of some members of the population; observations and measurements are made to determine the effects of this manipulation.
Experimental group In a scientific experiment, the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested.
Control group In a scientific experiment, the group of participants usedof comparison that receive a placebo and not the treatment being tested.
Refined Refers to foods that have undergone processing that changes or removes various components of the original food.
Legumes Plants in the pea or bean family, which produce an elongated pod containing large starchy seeds. Examples include green peas, kidney beans, and peanuts.
Added sugars Sugars and syrups that have been added to foods during processing or preparation.
Whole grain The entire kernel of grain including the bran layers, the germ, and the endosperm.
Bran The protective outer layers of whole grains. It is a concentrated source of dietary fiber.
Germ The embryo or sprouting portion of a kernel of grain. It contains oil, protein, fiver, and vitamins.
Endosperm The largest portion of a kernel of grain. It is primarily starch and serves as a food supply for the sprouting seed.
Enriched grain Grain products to which specific amounts of thiamin, ribolavin, niacin, and iron have been added. Since 1998, folic acid has also been added to enriched grains.
Monosaccharide A carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit,
Disaccharide A carbohydrate made up of two sugar units.
Polysaccharide A carbohydrate made up of many sugar units.
Simple carbohydrates A class of carbohydrates, known as sugars, that includes monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Glucose A monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body. It is the sugar referred to as blood sugar.
Fructose A monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate found in fruit.
Galactose A monosaccharide that combines with glucose to from lactose, or milk sugar.
Maltose A disaccharide made up of two molecules of glucose. It is formed in the intestines during starch digestion.
Sucrose A disaccharide that is formed by linking fructose and glucose. It is commonly known as table sugar or white sugar.
Lactose A disaccharide that is formed by linking galactose and glucose. It is commonly known as milk sugar.
Complex carbohydrates Carbohydrates composed of sugar molecules linked together in straight or branching chains. They include oligosaccharides, glycogen, starches, and fibers.
Oligosaccharidews Short-chain carbohydrates containing 3 to 10 sugar units.
Glycogen A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure. It is the storage form of carbohydrate in animals.
Starch A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branching chains. The bonds that hold the glucose molecules together can be broken by human digestive enzymes.
Fiber A mixture of indigestible carbohydrates and lignin that is found in plants.
Soluble fiber Fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water to form viscous solutions and can be broken down by the intestinal microflora. It includes pectins, gums, and some hemicellulose.
Insoluble fiber Fiber that, for the most part, does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. It includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses, and lignin.
Lactase An enzyme located in the microvilli of the small intestine that breaks the disaccharide lactose into glucose and galactose.
Lactose intolerance The inability to digest lactose because of a reduction in the levels of the enzyme lactase. It causes symptoms including intestinal gas and bloating after dairy products are consumed.
Resistant starch Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy people.
Glycemic response The rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a particular food or meal is consumed.
Glycemic index A ranking of the effect on blood glucose of a food of a certain carbohydrate content relative to an equal amount of carbohydrate from a reference food such as white bread or glucose.
Glycemic load An index of the glycemic response that occurs after eating specific foods. It is calculated by multiplying a food's glycemic index by the amount of available carbohydrate in a serving of food.
Insulin A hormone secreted by the pancreas that allows the uptake of flucose by body cells and has other matabolic effects such as stimulating protein and fat synthesis and the synthesis of glycogen in liver and muscle.
Glucagon A hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the breakdown of liver glycogen and the synthesis of glucose to increase blood sugar.
Gluconeogensis The synthesis of glucose from simple noncarbohydrate molecules. Amino acids from protein are the primary source of carbons for glucose synthesis.
Cellular respiration The reactions that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.
Glycolosis Metablic reactions in the cytosol of the cell that split glucose into 2 three-carbon pyruvate molecules, yielding two ATP molecules.
Aerobic Metabolism Metabolism in the presence of oxygen, which can completely break down glucose to yield carbon dioxide, water, and as many as 38 ATP molecules.
Glucogenic amino acid An amino acid that can be used to synthesize glucose through gluconeogenesis.
Ketogenic amino acid An amino acid that breaks down to form acetyl-CoA and thus contributes to ketone synthesis.
Ketons (ketone bodies) Moecules formed in the liver when there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize the two-carbon unites produced from fat breakdown.
Ketosis High levels of ketones in the blood.
Diabetes mellitus A disease caused by either insufficient insulin production or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin. It results in elevated blood glucose levels.
Type 1 diabetes A form of diabetes that is caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency; previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes A form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency previously known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome
Hypoglicemia A low blood glucose level, usually below 40 to 50 mg of glucose per 100 mL of blood.
Dental caries The decay and deterioration of teeth caused by acid produced when bacteria on the teeth metabolize carbohydrate.
Hemorrhoids Swollen veins in the anal or rectal area.
Diverticulosis A condition in which pouches called diverticula protrude from the wall of the large intestine. When these become inflamed, the condition is called diverticulitis.
Carcinogens Cancer-causing substances.
Mutations Changes in DNA caused by chemical or physical agents.
Malignancy A mass of cells showing uncontrolled growth, a tendency to invade and damage surrounding tissues, and an ability to seed daughter growths to sites remote from the original growth.
Sugar alcohols Sweeteners that are structurally related to sugars but provide less energy than monosaccharides and disaccharides because they are not well absorbed.
Lipids A group of organic molecules, most of which do not dissolve in water. They include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.
Triglyceride The major form of lipid in food and in the body. Each consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
Fatty acid An organic molecule made up of a chain of carbons linked to hydrogen atoms with an acid group at one end.
Phospholipid A type of lipid containing phosphorus. The most common is a phosphoglyceride, which is composed of a glycerol backbone with two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached.
Sterol A type of lipid with a structure composed of multiple chemical rings.
Saturated fatty acid A fatty acid in which the carbon atoms are bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible and that therefore contains no carbon-carbon double bonds.
Tropical oils A term used in the popular press to refer to the saturated oils-coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil-that are derived from plants frown in tropical regions.
Monounsaturated fatty acids A fatty acid that contains one carbon-carbon double bond.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids A fatty acid that contains two or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Omega-3 fatty acid A fatty acid containing a carbon-carbon double bond between the third and fourth carbons from the omega end.
Omega-6 fatty acid A fatty acid containing a carbon-carbon double bond between the sixth and seventh carbons from the omega end.
Trans fatty acid An unsaturated fatty acid in which the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond.
Hydrogenation The process whereby hydrogen atoms are added to the carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids, making them more saturated.
Phosphoglyceride A type of phospholipid consisting of a glycerol molecule, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group.
Emulsifier A substance that allows water and fat to mix by breaking large fat globules into smaller ones.
Lipid bilayer Two layers of phosphoglyceride molecules oriented so that the fat-soluble fatty acid tails are sandwiched between the water-soluble phosphate containing beds.
Lecithin A phosphoglyceride composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a molecule of choline.
Cholesterol A lipid that consists of multiple chemical rings and is made only by animal cells.
Micelles Particles formed in the small intestine when the products of fat digestion are surrounded by bile acids. They facilitate the absorption of fat.
Lipoprotein A particle containg a core of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by a shell of protein, phospholipids, and cholesterol that transports lipids in blood and lymph.
Chylomicron A lipoprotein that transports lipid from the mucosal cells of the small intestine and delivers triglycerides to other body cells.
Lipoprotein lipase An enzyme that breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol; attached to the cell membranes of cells that line the blood vessels.
Very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) A lipoprotein assembled by the liver that carries lipids from the liver and delivers triglycerides to body cells.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to cells. Elevated LDL cholesterol increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
LDL receptor A protein on the surface of cells that binds to LDL particles and allows their contents to be taken up for use by the cell.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) A lipoprotein that picks up cholesterol from cells and transports it to the liver so that it can be eliminated from the body. A high level of HDL decreases the risk of cardiovasular disease.
Adipose tissue Tissue found under the skin and around body organs that is composed of fat-storing cells.
Adipocyte A fat-storing cell
Essential fatty acid A fatty acid that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to meet needs.
Essential fatty acid deficiency A condition characterized by dry scaly skin and poor growth that results when the diet does not supply sufficient amounts of the essential fatty acids.
Eicosanoids Regulatory molecules, including prostaglandins and related compounds, that can be synthesized from omega-4 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Inflammation The response of a part of the body to injury that increases blood flow with an influx of white blood cells and other chemical substances to facilitate healing. it is characterized by swelling, heat, redness, pain, and loss of function.
Hormone-sensitive lipase An enzyme present in adipocytes that responds to chemical signal by breaking down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol for release into the bloodstream.
Cardiovascular disease Any disease affecting the heart and blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis A type of cardiovascular disease that involves the buildup of fatty material in the artery walls.
Atherosclerotic plaque The cholesterol-rich material that is deposited in the arteries of individuals with atherosclerosis. It consists of cholesterol, smooth muscle cells, fibrous tissue, and eventually calcium.
Oxidized LDL cholesterol A substance formed when the cholesterol in LDL particles is oxidzed by reactive ocygen molecules. It is key in the development of atherosclerosis because it contributes to the inflammatory process.
Scavenger receptor A protein on the surface of macrophages that binds to oxidized LDL cholesterol and allows it to be taken up by the cell.
Amino acids The building blocks of proteins. Each contains a central carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, an acid group, and a side chain.
Essential amino acid An amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs and therefore must be included in the diet.
Nonessential amino acid An amino acid that can be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs.
Transamination The process by which an amino group from one amino acid is transferred to a carbon compound to form a new amino acid.
Conditionally essential amino acid An amino acid that is essential in the diet only under certain conditions or at certain times of life.
Dipeptide 2 amino acids linked by a peptide bond.
Tripeptide 3 amino acids linked by a peptide bond.
Polypeptide Refers to any chain of 3 or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Denaturation The alteration of a protein's 3-dimensional structure.
Anaphylaxis An immediate and severe allergic reaction to a substance (food or drugs). Symptoms include breathing difficulty, loss of consciousness, and a drop in blood pressure and can be fatal.
Amino acid pool All of the amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for use by the body.
Protein turnover The continuous synthesis and breakdown of body proteins.
Gene A length of DNA containing the information needed to synthesize RNA, which may translate into a polypeptide sequence.
Transcription The process of copying the information in DNA to a molecule of mRNA.
Translation The process of translating the mRNA code into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain.
Gene expression The process by which the information coded in a gene is used to synthesize a product, either a protein or a molecule of RNA.
Limiting amino acid The essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration in relation to the body's needs.
Deamination The removal of the amino group from an amino acid.
Urea A nitrogen-containing waste product formed from the breakdown of amino acids that is excreted in the urine.
Antibody A protein produced by the body's immune system that recognizes foreign substances in the body and helps destroy them.
pH A measure of acidity
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) A condition characterized by wasting and an increased susceptibility to infection that results from the long-term consumption of insufficient amounts of energy and protein to meet needs.
Kwashiorkor A form of protein-energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient.
Marsmus A form of protein energy malnutrition in which a deficiency of energy in the diet causes sever body wasting.
Celiac disease A disorder that causes damage to the intestines when the protein gluten is eaten.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) An inherited disease in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. If the disease is untreated, toxic by-products called phenylketones accumulate in the blood and interfere with brain development.
Nitrgoen balance The amount of nitrogen consumed in the diet compared with the amount excreted by the body over a given period.
Protein quality A measure of how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins.
High-quality protein Protein that provides essential amino acids in the proportions needed to support protein synthesis.
Incomplete dietary protein Protein that is deficient in one or more essential amino acids relative to body needs.
Protein digestibility-correct amino acid score (PDCAAS) A measure of protein quality that reflects a protein's digestibility as well as the proportions of amino acids it provides.
Protein contemplation The process of combining proteins from different sources so that they collectively provide the proportions of amino acids required to meet the body's needs.
Vegetarin diet A pattern of food intake that includes plant-based foods and eliminates some or all foods of animal origin.
Vegan diet A pattern of food intake that eliminates all animal products.
Created by: EffieSL