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Nur356 - Electrolyte


How does the gastrointestinal system regulate water balance? Primarily by oral intake. Reabsorption and secretion accounts for 8,000 mL/day. Diarrhea/vomiting cause losses.
How does insensible and sensible water loss regulate water balance? Insensible = lung/skin vaporization (water only) Sensible = sweating, fever (water + electrolytes)
What are treatments of fluid volume excess? Treat the cause; give diuretics; limit intake of fluids and sodium
What are causes of fluid volume excess? Too much intake with too little output Shift from interstitium to plasma
What are treatments for fluid volume deficit? Treat the cause; increase intake; hydrate with IV (lactated ringers, NS, blood)
What are clinical manifestations of fluid volume deficits? Lethargy, dry mucous membranes, decreased skin turgor, tachycardia, hypotension, decreased urine output
What are causes of fluid volume deficit? Too little intake and too much output Fluid movement from plasma to interstitium (edema)
What are clinical manifestations of hyperphosphatemia? Precipitates in joints, arteries, skin, kidneys and cornea Neuromuscular irritability, tetany
What are treatments of hypomagnesemia? Mild: Oral supplement Severe: IV or IM supplement
What are sources of calcium? Primarily bone and secondary diet
What are clinical manifestations of fluid volume excess? Dyspnea, peripheral edema, increased heart rate, JVD, weight gain, lethargy, hypertension, lethargy
What are clinical manifestations of hypophosphatemia? Often asymptomatic if mild CNS depression, confusion, muscle weakness, pain, dysrhythmias
What are causes of hypermagnesemia? Increased intake with decreased renal function
What are clinical manifestations of hypermagnesemia? Lethargy, drowsiness, N/V (early), loss of DTR, somnolence, cardiac arrest
What are treatments of hypermagnesemia? Prevention is key; calcium chloride and calcium gluconate oppose the effects of magnesium on cardiac muscle
What are clinical manifestations of hypomagnesemia? Confusion, hyperreflexia, tremors, seizure, cardiac dysrhythmias
What are causes of hypercalcemia? Hyperparathyroidism, increased vitamin D, malignancy, prolonged immobility
What are causes of hyperphosphatemia? Renal failure, chemotherapy, excessive milk ingestion, vitamin D excess
What are treatments of hypophosphatemia? Mild: oral supplement, increased intake of dairy products Severe: sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate IV
What are treatments of hyperphosphatemia? Identify and treat cause; restrict dairy products, correct hypocalcemia and provide hydration
What are some clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia? Depressed reflexes, bone pain, fractures, renal calculi
What are some treatments of hypercalcemia? Furosemide (Lasix), hydration by IV and PO, calcitonin
What are functions of magnesium? Metabolism of carbohydrates and protein.
What are sources of magnesium? Bone is major source.
How is magnesium balance obtained? Maintained by GI absorption and renal excretion; similar to calcium balance (PTH)
What are magnesium levels associated with? Magnesium levels are associated with potassium and calcium levels.
What are causes of hypomagnesemia? Starvation, prolonged fasting, vomiting, diarrhea, NG suction, chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus
What are causes of hypocalcemia? Insufficient intake, hypoparathyroidism, elevated phosphorus, vitamin D deficiency, acute pancreatitis, chronic renal failure (not reabsorbing)
How is calcium balance maintained? Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcitonin
What are the clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia? Fatigue, extremity numbness, muscle cramps, hyperreflexia, tetany, Chvostek's sign, Trousseau's sign.
What are treatments of hypocalcemia? Identify and treat underlying cause; calcium supplements
What are functions of phosphorus? Primary ion in ICF; essential to function of muscles, RBCs, and nervous system; tooth and bone structure; cellular glucose uptake and use, metabolism
What are sources of phosphorus? Bone and dietary
How is balance of phosphorus maintained? Requires adequate renal function
With what is the phosphorus level associated? The phosphorus level has a reciprocal relationship with the calcium level.
What are causes of hypophosphatemia? Decreased intake, malabsorption syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, phosphate binding antacids
What are functions of calcium? Involved in transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractions, blood clotting, and teeth and bone formation
Created by: ssbourbon
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