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MC Psych Exam 1

2013 Fall with Heaton

What drug changed the way of mental health? thorazine
Who traveled the country trying to treat mental patients and gaining fame? Walter Freeman
What procedure did Walter Freeman perform? transorbital lobotmy
The NMA definition of mental health how a person thinks, feels, and acts when faced life's situations
Criterion of mental health (7) happiness, control over behavior, appraisal of reality, effectiveness in work, a healthy self-concept, satisfying relationships, effective coping strategies
mental illness is clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in a person that can be distress or disability or decreased functioning
mental illness is not an expected and culturally sanctioned response to a specific event
resilience factors that can affect the mental health of a person as well as the severity of problems and progression of mental illness
diathesis-stress model biological predisposition of stress nature & nuture
levels of investigation descriptive, analytical, experimental
case reports descriptive epidemiology
cross sectional studies descriptive epidemiology
case control studies analytical epidemiology
cohort studies epidemiology
test assumption & manipulates data epidemiology
broad field that addresses what happens to people with illnesses who are seen by health care providers clinical epidemiology
treatment strategies clinical epidemiology
concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disabilities, and mortality in the population epidemiology
the existing number of cases present in a population at a given time. total number prevalence
new cases during a certain period of time in a population incidence
DSM used for diagnosing a disorder
levels of awareness conscious, preconscious, unconscious
personality structure id, ego, superego
intellectual logic conscious
not immediate awareness but can recall preconscious
not available and not logical and operates on pleasure principle. but effects other levels. subconscious
purpose of all behavior is to get needs met through interpersonal interactions and decrease or avoid anxiety Sullivan's Theory
measures used to decrease things to defend against anxiety security operations
conditioning How a person thinks, feels, & acts when faced with life’s situations
Generalization process of learning to be afraid of familiar objects
interpersonal theory Sullivan
Ego theory Erickson
Humanistic Theory Maslow's
Psychoanalytical Theory Freud
primary process Id
problem solver & reality tester Ego
moral component superego
classic conditioning Pavlov
Behaviorism theory Watson
operant conditioning theory Skinner
levels of anxiety, interpersonal relations, & self-awareness Hildegard Peplau
classical psychoanalysis to guide to independence by assuming responsibility for their behavior. Tries to assign correct meaning in presents
Transference pt displaces onto the nurse feelings toward someone else
Countertransference nurse displaces onto the patient feelings toward someone else
Psychodynamic therapy uses tools psychoanalysis. Therapist is more active in the process & the duration of therapy is usually longer
Interpersonal psychotherapy focus on reassurance & improvement in the community
Cognitive Therapy therapists helps to correct distorted ideas
types of behavioral therapy modeling, operant conditioning, systematic desensitization, aversion therapy
Aversion therapy punishment if act is done. a last resort.
Used for: Alcoholism, shoplifting, sexual deviation Aversion therapy
Milieu Therapy safe supportive environment group therapy
Mental Health Team meets when? within 72 hrs of admission
Case Manager Role  Coordinates care  Establishes nurse-client relationship  Communicates daily/weekly with insurer  Provides treatment team with guidance of resource availability
Goal of Case Manager  Recovery from acute symptoms  Reduce recidivism  Enhance quality of life
Management #1 Responsibility safety
Ethical dilemma conflict between actions with favorable & unfavorable consequences
Ethics study of philosophical beliefs of right & wrong
Bioethics used in ethical dilemmas for healthcare
Beneficence duty to promote good
Autonomy respecting right to make own decisions
Justice distributing resources equally
Fidelity maintain loyalty & commitment & do good
Veracity duty to communicate truthfully
Conditional release outpt. & must follow up for certain time
Forensic nursing applying nursing to court of law for accurate decisions, collects evidence, etc.
5 Principles of Bioethics -Beneficence -Autonomy -Justice -Fidelity -Veracity
Voluntary 16 years & older, durable power of attorney, mental health treatment
Involuntary admission emergency, evaluated in community, risk for serious harm
pt rights treatment, refuse treatment, informed consent
Mood what pt. tells you about how they feel
Affect emotional tone looks to you
Neologisms made up unintelligible words
Thought Blocking stops abruptly thought is pulled out
Circumstantialities pattern of wandering with excessive details
Hallucinations hearing or seeing what no one else can
Illusions something reality is misinterpreted like lamppost is a man
recall few mins
recent a few days
remote long time ago
Social Relationships communication gives advice or asks for help, content is superficial, mutually met needs, & little evaluation
Intimate Relationships mutual goals that are agreed upon, mutual needs are met, emotional commitment to each other, personal info & intimate desires are shared
Genuineness ability to communicate one’s feelings & listening without distorting the message. Key in building trust
Self-awareness ability to examine personal feelings, understand & accept self, increase self-knowledge, increases capacity to experience new things with self-disclosure
Empathy feelings & ideas of client accurately perceived & understood. Feeling with the person
Positive Regard respect communicated indirectly by actions, works with client to develop personal resources, & is nonjudgmental focus
Blurred Boundaries relationship shifts from therapeutic to social
Transference person unconsciously displace onto individual current life emotions & behaviors from childhood that originated in relationships with significant others. Intensified with authority figure.
Countertransference nurse displaces onto client feelings related to people in nurses past. Often result of transference
Personal Characteristics of Nurse to Promote & Grow Relationship Genuiness, Empathy, & Positive Regard
Orientation supports & encourage articulation of problems & begins termination
Working phase o maintains relationship o gathers data o promotes self-esteem o guide & supports through problem solving
Termination o Verbally deal with intense feelings regarding experiences o Summarizes goals & objectives o Finalizes phase
Communication an interactive process between 2 or more persons
Convey interests & understanding or insult & judgment, messages clearly or conflicting or implied messages, clear, honest feeling or disguised distorted feeling
attending behaviors eye contact, body language, & touch that are culturally & individually appropriate
paraphrasing restating
reflecting form of a question
exploring to find out more info
process recording increases interview & communications skills by recording a segment of nurse-pt. session
communication process sender->msg->receiver->media
Symmetrical factors equal ie. 2 friends
complementary factors equal ie. 2 friends
intimate distance 0-18"
personal distance 40"
social distance 4-12'
clarifying techniques paraphrasing, reflecting, exploring
7 characteristics of a group size, defined purpose, degree of similarity, rules, boundaries, content, & process
group 2 or more people that come together for the purpose of pursuing common goals &/or interests
4 advantages of group work saving costs, benefit understanding from peers, safe setting, promote feeling of belonging
3 disadvantages of group work time constraints, confidentiality concern, & disruptive behaviors
group content info shared in group
group process how people talk to one another in the group
group norms expected behavior in a group giving it structure
group themes common emotion or problem shared by many of the group members
feedback letting people know how they affect each other
conflict a disagreement in the group
heterogeneous groups group full of differences
homogenous share a common trait like specific gender or disorder
closed group only people with membership is allowed no new members are added
open group new members are welcome & are added when others leave
subgroup a smaller group withing a larger group that functions separetly
identified factors that make group therapeutic Irvin Yalom
instillation of hope leader shares optimism about group treatment & members share their improvements
universality members realize they are not alone in their problems, feelings, or thoughts
imparting of info participants receive formal teaching by by the leader or advice from peers
altruism members feel a reward from giving support to others
imitative behavior members may copy behaviors from the leader or peers & can adopt healthier habits
interpersonal learning members gain insight into themselves based on the feedback from others. this is a complex process that occurs later in the group after trust is established
group cohesiveness arises in mature groups when each member feels connected to the other members, leader, & group as a whole. member can accept + feedback & constructive criticism. powerful factor
catharsis intense feelings are shared
group leadership responsibilities initiating, maintaining, and terminating group
autocratic leadership exerts control over the group & does not encourage much interaction among members
democratic leadership supports extensive group interaction in the process of problem solving
laissez-faire leadership allows the group members to behave in any way chosen & doesn't attempt to control
psychoeducational groups increases knowledge or skills about a specific somatic or psychological subject. members communicate emotional concerns
medication education group teaches about medications, answers questions, & preps for self-management
health education teaches them about a topic ie. sex education
dual diagnosis group incorporate learning about co-existing mental illnesses & substance abuse
symptom management groups common symptom resulting from a disorder the group focuses on sharing +/- experiences in coping to learn from another
stress management group teach about various relaxation techniques like deep breathing, exercise, music, & spirituality
self-help groups provide pts with opportunity to maintain or enhance personal & social functioning through cooperation & shared understandings
group psychotherapy treatment intervention where trained leader establishes purpose of treating pts
psychodrama group members are encouraged to act out life experiences of situations for purpose of learning & insights
dialectical behavior treatment pt seen each wk with goal of improving skills & reduce self-destructive behaviors. discouraged from making observations
group therapy is about what? working through problem & behaviors
monopolizing member talkative inhibits chance to be heard
fix for monopolizing member remind equal chance to talk, request someone who haven't heard speak, speak to that member in private
complaining member rejects help but continually brings environmental or somatic problems & takes pride in it
fix for complaining member acknowledge pessimism but maintain neutral affect
demoralizing member - behavior & refuses to take any responsibilities. challenges the group leader
fix for demoralizing member talk to them in private, focus on + members, empathize in a matter-of-fact manner
silent member observing for safety 1st. can't benefit from feedback & insights if uncomfortable or mistrust
fix for silent member give more time to think & come back to them, assign a topic for all to respond, break up groups into pairs
expected outcomes vary between group types
education outcome demonstration of knowledge
therapy outcome focus on insights, behavior changes, & reduction of symptoms
Created by: midnight1854
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