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endocrine CTS

QuestionAnswer
what do you call the system that the endocrine and the nervous system share neuroendocrine
What is the main function of the endocrine system regulates the body's chemical messengers too maintain homeostasis
functions of the endocrine system water blalnce uterine contractions & milk release growth, meabolism and tissue maturation ion regulation heart rate and blood pressure regulation blood glucose control immune system regulation reproductive function control
two types of glands in the endocrine system exocrine and endocrine
describe an exocrine gland and exocrine glands release there product into ducts, which carry the products into body cavities, the lumen of an organ, or the outer surface of the body
describe the endocrine gland secrete their products into the extracellular space around the secretory cells. the secretions diffuse into capillaries and are carried throughout the body by the circulatory system.
Classification by general function Tropic hormones, Sex hormones, Anabolic hormones
Classification by chemical structure Classification by chemical structure, Nonsteroid hormones
Tropic hormones stimulate what function? target other endocrine glands and stimulate their growth and secretion
Sex hormones stimulate what function? target reproductive tissues
Anabolic hormones stimulate what function? stimulate anabolism in target cells
Chemically, hormones are either Steroid, or steroid-like hormones & Non-steroid hormones
Steroid, or steroid-like hormones Sex hormones Adrenal cortex hormones
Non-steroid hormones Amines Proteins Peptides Glycoproteins
Steroid hormones Synthesized from cholesterol Lipid soluble; easily pass through the phospholipid plasma membrane of target cells Examples: cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
Hormones that pass into the blood and act on distant target cells are called _________ or ______________. circulating hormones or endocrines.
Hormones that act locally without first entering the bloodstream are called ___________ local hormones
Local hormones that act on neighbouring cells are called _____________ paracrines.
Local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them are called __________. Local hormones are usually inactivated very quickly autocrines.
Hormones regulate the ___________ and _________ of the internal environment (extracellular fluid). chemical composition and volume
Hormones help regulate metabolism and energy balance, & contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and secretion by glands
Hormones help maintain ____________, despite disruptions, such as infection, trauma, emotional stress, dehydration, starvation, hemorrhage, and temperature extremes homeostasis
Hormones are released into the ____________ surrounding endocrine cells extracellular spaces
what is ment by hormone Lock-and-Key Model: a hormone acts only on cells that have receptors specific to that hormone because the shape of the receptor determines which hormone can react with it…
Steroid hormones regulate cells by regulating production of certain critical proteins
The _______ of steroid hormone present determines the _________ amount magnitude
Because transcription and protein synthesis take time responses to steroid hormones are often slow
Most hormones have _________ that directly regulate target cells and many __________that influence or modulate other regulatory mechanisms in target cells primary effects secondary effects
Endocrine glands produce more hormone molecules than are needed; the unused hormones are quickly excreted by the ________ or broken down by __________ kidneys metabolic processes
The second messenger mechanism: also known as the fixed membrane receptor model
Endocrine glands of the body Pituitary, Pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, heart, gonads, kidneys
where is the pituitary gland Lies at the base of the brain (ventral) in the sella turcica
what is the technical name for the pituitary adenohypophysis and nneurohypophysis
what structure connects the pituitary to the brain infundibulum or pituitary stalk
5 hormones and their organs that relate to the adenohypophysis bone- growth hormone adrenal- ACTH (adrenocorticotropiphic) thyroid -THS thyroid stimulating hormone testees/ovaries -gonadlotrophs FSH&LH (follicle stimulating hormone & Luteinizing hormone) mamary-prolactin
2 hormones and their organs that relate to the neurohypophysis kidney-ADH (antidiuretic hormone) uterine, mammary gland- OT (oxytocin)
Pineal gland is responsible for ____ and secretes what product body's biological clock, melatonin
Thyroid gland is located _________ and produces what 3 hormones just below the larynx, T3, T4, and calcitonin
what is the principle action of the thyroid to increase the rate of metabolism
what disorders can be cause by and over/under active thryroid graves, hashimoto disease, simple goiter
what cell in the thyroid secretes the hormone and where is it stored follicular cell, colloid
what is the primary function of calcitonin to take calcium out of the blood and put it in the bones
where are the parathyroid behind the thyroid, in front of the larynx
how many parathyroid are there 4
what hormone does the parathyroid secrete and what is its function PTH (parathyroid hormone), takes calcium from the bone and puts it in the blood.
Parathyroid hormone acts as antagonist to calcitonin to maintain calcium homeostasis
where are the adrenal glands The gland sits like a cap on each kidney
what two area secrete hormones in the adrenal gland the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
how many hormones are secreted by the adrenal gland many
what are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, & zona reticularis
3 types of hormones secreted by the adrenal gland aldosterone, cortisol, and adrenal androgens
all cortical hormones are steroids and are known as corticosteroids
each layer of the adrenal is responsible for its own hormone, what layer is matched with what hormone glomerulosa - mineral corticoids fasciculata - glucocorticoids reticularis - gonadocorticoids Medulla - catecholamines
mineralcorticoids aldosterum (sodium potatsium reguation)
glucocorticoids cortisol- to use glucose for energy
gonalocorticoids adrenal androgens, supliment sex hormones
catecholamines epinephrine, and norepinephrine
where is the pancreas located horizontally behind the stomach, and then touches the spleen
what type of gland is it endocrine and exocrine
what is the endocrine portion called and what does it secrete islets of langerhans alpha cells, beta cells, delta cells, and pp (pancreatic polypeptide cells
what is the exocrine portion called and what does it secrete Acini serous fluid containing digestive enzymes into ducts draining into the small intestine
what does each cells in the islets of langerhans relate to alpha cells- glucogon beta cells- insulin delta cells - somatostatin (regulate carbohydrates) pancreatic polypeptid cells secrete pancreatic polypeptides
Secretes thymosins Promotes development of certain lymphocytes Important in role of immunity Thymus Gland
Ovaries produce estrogens and progesterone Testes produce testosterone Placenta produces estrogens, progesterone, and gonadotropin Reproductive Organs
Secretes melatonin Regulates circadian rhythms Pineal Gland
Other organs digestive glands, heart, and kidney
Created by: slarrett