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PSYCH Midterm

Polygenic Traits influenced by combinations of genes
Genotype Determined by the sequencing of chemicals in one’s DNA
Phenotype The manner in which genetic code appears as a function of experiences and environmental influences
Down Syndrome Occurs when the 21st pair of chromosomes has an extra, or third, chromosome
Monozygotic twins Identical twins from the same fertilized egg
Dizygotic twins Fraternal twins from two separate fertilized eggs
Dendrite Receive incoming messages from adjourning cells (roots)
Axons Carry messages away from the cell body (trunk
Terminals Bulb-shaped structures at the end of the axons
Myelin Fatty substance around axons that facilitate conduction
Glial cells Remove dead neurons and waste products from the nervous system and help neurons synchronize messages to be transmitted in waves
Depolarized Action of the cell while it becomes positively charged
Threshold Each neuron has a threshold; the cell will not fire until the threshold is reached
All-or-none principle When the threshold is reached, the neuron fires an impulse of the same strength.
Refractory period A period of time when the neuron will not fire; a period of recovery during which positive sodium is not allowed to pass through the neural membrane.
Synapse Junction (fluid filled gap between neurons)
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that are spilled into the synaptic cleft and influence receiving the neurons
Receptor site Site on receiving neuron where specific neurotransmitter fits
Reuptake Sending neuron reabsorbs neurotransmitters
Excitatory Neurotransmitter influences receiving cell; causes it to fire
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter influences receiving cell; prevents it from firing
Acetylcholine (ACh) Decreases in ACh is associated with Alzheimer's related memory problems
Dopamine Affects voluntary movements, learning, memory and arousal
Norepinephrine Produced largely in the brain stem; acts as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone; Involved in general arousal, learning and memory, and eating; linked to mood disorders
Serotonin Involved in emotional arousal and sleep; Deficiencies have been linked to eating disorders, alcoholism, depression, aggression, and insomnia
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Inhibitory neurotransmitter that may help calm anxiety reactions.
Endorphins Inhibitory neurotransmitter; endogenous morphine; natural painkiller
Nerve A bundle of axons
Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system Afferent and efferent neurons, which transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands
Somatic nervous system Afferent and efferent neurons that transmit sights, sounds, smells, temperature, body positions, etc.; Purposeful body movements
Autonomic nervous system  “Automatic” regulates the glands and internal organ muscles: heartbeat, respiration, digestion, dilation of the pupils, etc.
Sympathetic division Active during processes that involve spending body energy; fight or flight
Parasympathetic division Active during processes that replenish reserves of energy
Spinal Cord Spinal reflexes: unlearned responses to a stimulus that may involve only two neurons: afferent and efferent
Interneuron A third neuron that transmits the neural impulse from the sensory neuron through the spinal cord to the motor neuron
Gray matter Non-myelinated neurons; found in brain and spinal cord
White matter Myelinated neurons; found in brain and spinal cord
Electroencephalograph (EEG) Detects minute amounts of electrical activity in the brain
Medulla Regulates vital functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
Pons Transmits information about body movements and is involved in functions related to attention, sleep/alertness and respiration
Cerebellum Involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior
Reticular formation Vital in the functions of attention, sleep and arousal
Thalamus Relay station for sensory stimulation
Hypothalamus Vital for body temperature regulation, concentration of fluids, storage of nutrients, and aspects of motivation and emotion; Also involved in hunger, thirst and sexual behavior
Limbic system Includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the hypothalamus; Involved in memory, emotion and in the drives of hunger, sex and aggression
Amygdala Connected with aggression, fear response, and vigilance
Cerebrum Responsible for thinking and language
Corpus Callosum A bundle of some 200 million nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres
The Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum’s outer layer is about 1/8 inch thick. It is involved in bodily activities, sensations, and responses.
Frontal lobe In front of central fissure; Contains the motor cortex, which causes our body to move
Parietal lobe  Behind central fissure.; Contains the somatosensory cortex, which receives messages from skin senses all over the body
Temporal lobe Lies below the lateral fissure; Contains the auditory area (hearing)
Occipital lobe Lies behind the temporal lobe; is involved with vision and language functions
Pituitary gland Implicated in growth
Prolactin Regulates maternal behavior in lower animals such as rats; also produces milk in women
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Inhibits production of urine when fluid levels in the body are low
Oxytocin Stimulates labor in pregnant women
Melatonin Secreted by the Pineal gland and helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle
Thyroxin secreted by the thyroid and affects the body’s metabolism
Adrenal glands Release hormones to increase resistance to stress; Promote muscle development and the release of sugar in the liver, making more energy available
Primary sex characteristics Those characteristics involved in reproduction: increased penis size and sperm-producing ability of the testes
Secondary sex characteristics Not directly related to reproduction: presence of a beard, deeper voice
Created by: khansen0520