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patho exam 1: homeostasis and Adaptive Responses to Stressors

define homeostasis remaining stable while staying the same
Homeostasis is a state of what? equilibrium balance of all systems
What is an ideal "set point" despite alterations within the body? homeostasis
at the lowest level, stress affects what? activity of enzymes and cells
What happens to enzyme activity when temperature is increased? enzymes are more active
What happens to enzyme activity when temperature is decreased? enzyme activity is decreased
define allostasis ability to successfully adapt to challenges
What organ regulates intricate regulatory processes in the body? the brain
What type of process is allostasis? dynamic
What does allostasis do? maintain or reestablishes homeostasis in light of environmental changes
3 factors of stress physical chemical emotional
what does stress result in? tension of body or mind
define stress real or perceived threat to homeostasis
What are the stages of general adaptation syndrome? alarm resistance/adaptation exhaustion
define alarm stage fight or flight response due to stressful stimulus
what axis is associated with alarm stage? hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis
define resistance or adaptation stage activity of the nervous and endocrine systems in returning the body to homeostasis
define allostatic state activity of various systems attempting to restore homeostasis
Which stage of the general adaptation syndrome facilitates the individual's allostatic restoration of homeostasis: alarm, resistance, exhaustion, allostatic load? resistance
what does ADH save? water
What does aldosterone save? salt
How does ACTH relate to aldosterone production? ACTH is necessary for enzyme activity needed to make aldosterone
Example of mineralcorticoid aldosterone
example of glucocorticoid cortisol
define liplysis breakdown of fat
define glycolysis breakdown of glycogen in liver
define exhaustion stage point where body can no longer return to homeostasis
define allostatic overload cost of body's organs and tissues for an excessive or ineffectively regulated allostatic response
What is another term for the effect of "wear and tear" on the body? allostatic overload
define stressors agents or conditions that can produce stress and endanger homeostais
types of stressors internal/external physical chemical biological social cultural psychological
How will stressors vary? scope intensity duration
Inadequate responses to stress can cause what? illness
reactions to stress vary depending on what? genetic constitution gender past experiences cultural influences developmental stage age
stressors can include what types of perceived events? negatively and positively
Which of the following is an example of a stressor? using a cell phone while driving, being exposed to air pollution, running in the dark, having inadequate immunizations? being exposed to air pollution
define risk factors conditions or situations that increase the likelihood of encountering a stressor
What play an integral role in allostasis? catecholamines
What response mediates the fight or flight response? sympathico-adrenal system response
Examples of catecholamines norepinephrine epinephrine
A physiologic response to the release of catecholamines during the stress response would be: increased gastrointestinal motility, constriction of the pupils, increased glycogenolysis, decreased heart rate? increased glycogenolysis
What does the stress response require? additional available energy
What does norepinephrine do? constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure reduces gastric secretions increases night and far vision
What does epinephrine do? enhances myocardial contractility, increase heart rate, increase cardiac output bronchodilation increases release of glucose from liver elevates blood glucose levels
define glycogenolysis release of glucose from the liver
What do you need to monitor in patient who just received epinephrine? heart rate
What steroids are critical to maintenance of homeostasis? adrenocortical steroids
How will adrenocortical steroids affect catecholamines synergize or antagonize
Examples of adrenocortical steroids cortisol aldosterone
Is aldosterone regulated by ACTH? no
what is the primary glucocorticoid? cortisol
What adrenocortical steroid affects protein metabolism? cortisol
What does cortisol promote appetite and food-seeking behaviors
What type of effects does cortisol have? anti-inflammatory
What is the primary mineralocorticoid? aldosterone
What adrenocortical steroid promotes reabsorption of sodium and water? aldosterone
What is aldosterone's affect on blood pressure? increases blood pressure
Why does aldosteron increase blood pressure? salt saving blood volume goes up stroke volume increases blood pressure increases
define endogenous opioids body's natural pain relievers
What do endogenous opioids do? raise pain threshold produce sedation and euphoria
what do macrophages secrete during stress response? immune cytokines
What do immune cytokines produce? enhanced immune system response
What can prolonged stress do? suppress immune functioning
Example of immune cytokine interleukin-1
8 neurohormonal mediators of stress and adaptation catecholamines adrenocortical steroids endorphins and enkephalins immune cytokines sex hormones growth hormone prolactin oxytocin
how does stress effect growth hormone levels? increase to enhance immune function
When is oxytocin produced? during childbirth and lactation
What is oxytocin associated with? bonding and social attachment
What kind of effect does oxytocin produce? calming
How do individual stress responses change? with time and circumstances
Effects of stress response are influenced by... genetics socioeconomic status prior susceptibilities preexisting health status allostatic state ability to manage stress
Stress response is modified by what? experience training different conditions
define adaptation biophsychosocial process of change in response to new or altered circumstances, internal or external in origin
define coping behavioral adaptive response to a stressor using culturally based coping mechanisms
define distress perceived inability to cope with a stressor
2 adaptation methods for stress habituation desensitization
3 types of desensitization biofeedback visualization meditation
What is an inadequate adaptation mechanism? allostatic overload
What chemical mediators from stress response contribute to various illnesses? cortisol catecholamines cytokines
Created by: cdc52591