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Intro to Path

Patho Lecture 1, Exam 1

What is pathophysiology based on? common or "classic" presentation of disease in the physiologic functioning of human beings
What characteristics are you looking at when looking at disease? altered physiology
4 interrelated topics in pathophysiology etiology pathogenesis clinical manifestations treatment implications
define etiology study of causes or reasons for phenomena
What does etiology identify? causal factors that provoke a particular disease or injury
2 classifications of etiology idiopathic iatrogenic
define idiopathic cause is unkown
define iatrogenic cause results from unintended or unwanted medical treatment
define risk factor a factor that when present increases the likelihood of disease
define pathogenesis development or evolution of disease
What is the pathway we examine when looking at pathogenesis? initial stimulus to ultimate expression of manifestations of the disease
What does pathogenesis describe? how etiologic factors are thought to alter physiologic function and lead to development of clinical manifestations of disease
3 clinical manifestations signs symptoms syndrome
define signs objective or observed manifestations of disease
What are signs of the flu? fever sneeze
define symptoms subjective feeling of abnormality in the body
What are symptoms of the flu? body aches nausea
define syndrome etiology of signs and symptoms has not yet been determined
Which of the following is an example of a sign: nausea, bruise, headache, loss of appetite bruise
5 stages of clinical course latent subclincal prodromal acute clinical chronic clinical
define latent period time between exposure of tissue to injurious agent and first appearance of sign/symptoms
latent period in everyday terms on air plane; exposed to things come home and fine for 7 to 10 days then suddenly get sick
appearance of symptoms in latent period nothing showing even though infected
define prodromal period time during which first signs/symptoms appear indicating onset of disease
prodromal period in everyday terms person doesn't feel good (malaise) can't really identify cause feel lousy
define acute phase disease/illness reaches its full intensity
acute phase in everyday terms exposed 3 weeks ago infected body is fighting disease
latent period also refers to a period during an illness when... signs/symptoms temporarily become mild or silent or disappear
define subclinical stage patient functions normally disease processes are well established
define acute-clinical course short-lived may have severe manifestations
acute-clinical course in terms of DMI functioning normally then all of sudden have coma
define chronic-clinical course may last months to years sometimes following an acute course
chronic-clinical course in terms of DM always have DM but is managed
define exacerbation sudden increase in severity of disease or signs and symptoms
define remission decrease in severity, signs, or symptoms may indicate disease is cured
define convalescence stage of recovery after a disease, injury, or surgical procedure
define sequela subsequent pathologic condition resulting from an illness
What determines which treatments would be helpful in disease? understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of disease
define statistical normality estimate of diseases in a normal population
what is statistical normality based on? bell-shaped curve
define reliability test's ability to give the same results in repeated measurements
define validity degree to which a measurement reflects the true value of what it intends to measure
What determines the test's ability to give you the same outcome. reliability
What determines if the test you designed is testing what you want it to test? validity
define predictive value extent to which a test can differentiate between presence or absence of a person's condition
What determines if a test you derive has discriminative ability? predictive value
define sensitivity probability that a test will be positive when applied to a person with a particular condition
What test characteristic detects a disease in a patient? sensitivity
define specificity probability that a test will be negative when applied to a person without a particular condition
What test characteristic allows you to rule out a disease? specificty
3 individual factors cultural considerations age differences gender differences
define cultural considerations each culture defines health and illness in a manner that reflects their experience
define age differences a normal value for a person at one age may not be normal for a person at another age
define gender differences a normal value for men may not be normal for women or visa versa
when are gender differences relevant? in health and disease
What do situational differences determine? Whether a derivation from normal should be considered abnormal or an adaptation mechanism
What do time variations impact? how the body responds from day to night or at varying times
2 examples of time variatoins circadian rhythm diurnal variations
what is cortisol? a stress hormone
What does cortisol regulate? glucose; helps to keep glucose levels stable and keep reserves for brain
When is cortisol production low? evening
when is cortisol production high? in the morning
define epidemiology study of patterns of disease
What does epidemiology involve? populations
What characteristics of disease does epidemiology examine? occurrence incidence prevalence transmission distribution
3 types of diseases endemic epidemic pandemic
define endemic disease native to local region
define epidemic disease spread to many people at the same time
define pandemic disease spread to large geographic areas
5 aggregate factors or epidemiologic variables age ethnic group gender socioeconomic factors lifestyle considerations geographic location
which is an example of a factor that would affect the epidemiology of a particular disease: predictive value, southeast Asian ethnicity, circadian rhythms, clinical manifestations? southeast Asian ethnicity
3 levels of prevention primary secondary tertiary
define primary prevention altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible persons
define secondary prevention early detection, screening, and management of disease
define tertiary prevention rehabilitation, supportive care, reducing disability, and restoring effective functioning
what type of prevention is maintaining routine immunizations? primary
What type of prevention is screening for cancer? secondary
What type of prevention is rehabilitating after a stroke? tertiary
What type of prevention is performing monthly breast exams? secondary
Created by: cdc52591