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Infection Control P2

Concepts Exam 1

What does infection arise from? invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a host
What is antibiotic treatment aimed at? inhibiting or ceasing further growth of infectious agent
What is infection preceded by? colonization
define colonization microorganisms are present in host but do not invade or cause an associated host response
Is treatment warranted for colonization? No
What is the single most important strategy for preventing or reducing nosocomial infections? hand hygiene
What does the CDC recommended time to wash hands? 10 to 15 seconds
When should hand hygiene be performed? before touching patient, before and after procedure or body fluid exposure, after touching patient or surroundings, food preparation, linen handling
What is the most important technique to prevent infection? hand washing
What type of bacteria can be reduced by mechanical cleaning? transient
What poses the greatest risk to healthcare workers for exposure to blood-borne illnesses? contaminated sharps
Standard precautions aim to minimize the exposure of what? hands, skin and mucosa
When is PPE required? when risk of exposure to body fluids is present, contact with non-intact skin, and contact with mucous membranes
define direct contact touching
define indirect contact touching an object that has been in contact with pathogen
What are the 4 ways a disease can be introduced? contact, droplet, airborne, vehicle
define contact exposure transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids
How is E.coli introduced? contact
How is Sheigella introduced? contact
How is Hepatitis A or rotavirus introduced? contact
How is herpes simplex virus introduced? contact
How is pediculosis introduced? contact
How is conjunctivas introduced? contact
define droplet exposure droplets created by infected person that are inhaled by others
How are droplet infections transmitted? through coughing, sneezing, talking
What PPE is necessary for droplet precautions? facial mask
How is pneumonia introduced? droplet
How is rubella introduced? droplet
How is diphtheria (pharyngeal) introduced? droplet
How is mumps introduced? droplet
How is pertusis introduced? droplet
How is influenza introduced? droplet
How are airborne infections transmitted? pathogen is carried more than 3 feet in air via moisture or dust particles
How is measles introduced? airborne
How is varicella introduced? airborne
How is tuberculosis introduced? airborne
define vehicle pathogens are then transferred to those who eat, drink, or touch contaminated substance or object
4 examples of vehicles food, water, medications, utensils
4 examples of vectors roaches, mice, mosquitoes, flies
define nosocomial infection infection that is spread within a facility
What is the severity of nosocomial infections? mild or life threatening
Example of nosocomial infection urinary tract infection post operative
What is MRSA methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
What is a common nosocomial infection in hospitals and long term care facilies? MRSA
Why is MRSA easily transmitted by health care workers? it is frequently colonized on the skin
Where are entercocci normally found? bowel and female genital tract
How long do enterococci persist in environment? up to 7 days
Where can enterococci persist for up to 7 days? hands, gloves, equipment, bed rails, telephones, stethoscopes
what is VRE? vancomycin resistant enterococcus
Cross-infection of VRE has been attributed to what? thermometers, commodes, movement of inadequately cleaned patient furinture
How does transmission of VRE occur? directly via hands or indirectly via contaminated environmental surfaces
According to the principals of sterilization wet is considered... contaminated
According to the principals of sterilization in what direction should you wipe? inner to outer
According to the principals of sterilization how should 2 sterile individuals walk? front to front
According to the principals of sterilization where should you keep your hands? above the waist
What is the most effective means of infection control? good hand washing
What are the 4 key points for personal hygiene? restrain hair, keep nails short, minimum jewelry, cover open wounds
Hand hygiene for visibly soiled hands wash with soap and water
Hand hygiene for before and after client contact wash with soap and water
hand hygiene for after contact with a source of microorganisms wash with soap and water
hand hygiene for prior to performance of invasive procedures wash with soap and water
hand hygiene for before and after removing gloves wash with soap and water
hand hygiene for beginning and end of every shift wash with soap and water
hand hygiene for administration of medication wash with alcohol based products
hand hygiene for non soiled hands wash with alcohol based products
hand hygiene for non surgical procedures wash with alcohol based products
hand hygiene for caring for patients with known or suspected C. difficle wash with soap and water
why must soap and water be used when dealing with patients who have C.difficle? alcohol does not adequately remove spores
What is not an adequate substitute for hand hygiene? wearing gloves
Why are artificial fingernails not allowed? harbor bacteria and fungi and have been linked to infections
Why is eating and drinking in patient care areas prohibited? potential contamination of food and beverages
What is Hepatitis B? blood borne virus with an unpredictable course of illness/symptoms
Health care workers are ___ times more likely than general public to contract Hepatitis B. 20
Transmission of Hepatitis B can occur how? needle sticks, sexual contact,surface contaminated with infected blood
Is the hepatitis B virus spread through casual contact? no
What is the order for taking off PPE? gloves, eyeware, gown, mask
When are gloves worn? anticipated contact with blood or bodily fluids
When are gowns worn? when visible contamination of clothing is expected
When are masks, eye protection, or full face shields worn? when splashing or aerosolization of bodily fluids is anticipated
What is the order for putting on PPE? gown, surgical mask/respirator, goggles, gloves
define subjective data what the patient says
define objective data validated proof
What is the key to developing a patient goal? must be measurable while you're with patient
What is combined to provide a global view of the patient's immune function? lab values, patient history, and physical exam
What does preventative skin assessment protocol include? documentation
What is nature's first line of defense against microbes entering the body? intact skin
What do you use on all at risk skin surfaces? hydration and moisturization
Dry skin can lead to... inflammation, excoriations, and possible infection
What does fluid intake help? thin out secretions and replace fluid lost during fever
What increases the patient's need for rest? chronic disease, physical and emotional stress
What is the passage of microbes suspended in the air on water droplets or dust particles that enter the host by inhalation? airborne transmission
What is freedom from infection or infectious material? asepsis
define bacteriostatic arresting the growth/multiplication of bacteria
what may be classified as a bacteriostatic medication? antibiotics
What is a technique based upon the premise that all body substances may contain pathogens? body substance isolation
What should you never touch with a bare hand? anything wet that comes from the body or body cavity
When should gloves be worn? when in contact with mucus membranes, non-intact skin, or body substance
What do body substances include? blood, urine, feces, saliva, wound drainage, aspirated fluids
What is the presence and multiplication of microbes without tissue invasion or damage? colonization
What symptoms do individuals who are colonized present? none
Do individuals who are colonized have the potential to infect others? yes
What is the physical transfer of an organism between an infected or colonized person and susceptible host? contact transmission
when does indirect contact occur? when a patient comes in contact with equipment contaminated by infectious organism
When does direct contact occur? when an infected person transfers the organism directly to a susceptible host
What is inhalation of respiratory pathogenic microbes suspended on liquid particles exhaled by someone already infected? droplet transmission
What type of transmission occurs when a patient with URI sneezes, allowing pathogenic microbes to exit the body and become inhaled by another person within close proximity? droplet transmission
What is a microbial organism with the ability to cause disease? infectious agent
define virulence ability to grown and multiply
define invasiveness ability to enter tissues
define pathogenicity ability to cause disease
What must be increased in order to increase the possibility of creating an infection? virulence, invasiveness, and pathogenicity
4 examples of infectious agents bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
What are techniques used to prevent or limit the spread of infection? isolation
Why are patients diagnosed with an infectious disease placed in isolation? to prevent the transmission of pathogens to others
define incubation the time between exposure to an infectious organism and the appearance of clinical systems of disease
define medical asepsis techniques used to control and to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms
What is a medical asepsis technique? hand washing
define mode of transmission method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another
define nosocomial infection infection acquired during hospitalization
What is the main mode of transmission of MRSA? hands of health care worker
define pathogen any disease producing microorganism
What is a mask-like apparatus that fits snugly over the nose and mouth and filters out organisms? particulate respirator
Why are particulate respirators worn? to prevent contamination by airborne diseases such as tuberculosis
define portal of entry an opening allowing the microbe to enter the host
3 examples of portals of entry body orifices, mucus membranes, breaks in skin
define portal of exit place of exit providing a way for the microbe to leave the reservoir
3 examples of portals of exit nose, mouth, feces
define protective isolation individuals suffering from a weakened immune system and susceptible to microbe invasion are isolated to avoid exposure
define reservoir place where microbes can thrive and reproduce
5 examples of reservoir humans, animals, water, tabletops, doorknobs
define standard precautions universal precautions and body substance isolation techniques to provide protection against the transmission infectious microbes
Who are the standard precautions techniques applied to? all individuals regardless of medical diagnosis
define surgical asepsis techniques used to destroy all pathogenic organisms before they can enter the body
What is one surgical asepsis technique? sterilization of surgical equipment
When do the principles of surgical asepsis apply? invasive procedures involving placement of equipment inside the body
define susceptible host a person who cannot resist a microbe invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection
define transmission based precautions barrier or isolation techniques applied to control the spread of the organism
what is an example of a transmission based precaution? wearing protective gloves when handling body secretions
What are techniques utilized with all patients, regardless of diagnosis, to protect against blood borne pathogens? universal precautions
What are universal precautions applied to? blood or any body fluid
define vehicle transmission transfer of microbes by way of contaminated items
example of vehicle transmission blood can carry hepatitis and HIV
what is one of the common causes of nosocomial infections? VRE
Created by: cdc52591
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