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# Fluid Dynamics

### Vocabulary and equations for Fluid Dynamics

What is the symbol commonly used for Specific Weight? Gamma
What is the formula for Specific Weight? Weight per unit Volume
What is the symbol commonly used for Density? Rho
What are the units for specific gravity? It is unitless
What does Density measure? Mass per unit Volume
What is the formula for Specific Gravity? Density of material over Density of water @ 4 degrees Celsius (1000 kg/m^3 in SI)
What are the three most common systems of measurement? SI, BG, and EE
How is one Newton of force measured in SI? One Newton of force is the force required to move one kilogram of mass at one meter per second squared of acceleration.
How is one pound of force measured in EE? One pound of force is the force necessary to move one pound of mass at 32.2 ft per second squared of acceleration, divided by the gravitation constant of 32.2.
How is Weight Flow Rate (W dot) defined? Weight per unit time, or Q dot*Gamma
How is Mass Flow Rate (M dot) defined? Mass per unit time, or Q dot*Rho
How are W dot and M dot related? W dot = M dot*g
What is the Ideal Gas Law? p=Rho*R(Gas Constant)*T(In degrees Rankin)
What is an Iso-thermal process? One in which there is no change in temperature.
What is the pressure ratio formula for an Iso-thermal process? (P1/Rho1)=(P2/Rho2)
What is an Isentropic process? A process which is both reversible and Adiabatic.
What is an Adiabatic process? One in which there is no heat (Q) lost outside the system. (A.K.A. no friction is present)
What is the pressure ratio formula for an Isentropic process? (P1/(Rho1^k))=(P2/(Rho2^k))
What is Standard Atmospheric Pressure? 14.7
What is the formula to derive the speed of sound in a gas? c=Root((k*P)/Rho) or (Perfect gas) c=Root(k*R*T)
How is Mach number derived? Speed of object divided by the speed of sound in that medium.
What is the Bulk Modulus of Elasticity (Ev)? dP/(-dV/V) or "The amount of pressure necessary to change V by an amount equal to dV" Units are in units of pressure (pascal, psi, etc...)
What is the formula to derive the speed of sound in a liquid? c=root(dP/dRho)=root(Ev/Rho)
What is vapor pressure? The pressure at which a liquid volatilizes.
What is a venturi tube? A choked tube which takes advantage of a liquids vapor pressure to volatilize it.
What is the formula for determining velocity of an incompressible flow through a tube? P + (1/2)V^2 = A constant
When is a flow considered to be incompressible? At M<=0.3
What is cavitation? When bubbles burst due to being brought above and below vapor pressure.
Where is the no slip condition found? On the walls of a pipe is one location.
What types of fluids does a no slip condition hold true for? Viscid flows.
What is Newtons Law of Viscosity? Tau=Mu(dU/dy) U is pipe flow velocity and y is the pipe bore width.
What is Tau in Newtons Law of Viscosity? Shear stress (Tangential force per unit area)
What does the symbol Mu stand for? Dynamic Viscosity
What does the symbol Nu stand for? Kinematic Viscosity
How are dynamic and kinematic viscosities related? Mu=Nu*Rho
What is the Sutherland Equation? Mu=(CT^(3/2))/(T+S) Where T is absolute temperature. C and S are fluid dependent constants.
Is the Sutherland equation used for fluids or gasses? Gasses
What is Andrades equation? Mu=D*e^(B/T) Where D and B are constants and T is measured in absolute temperatures.
Is Andrades equation used for fluids or gasses? Liquids
What is the relationship between temperature and Mu in gases? As temperature rises, so does Mu.
What is the relationship between temperature and Mu in liquids? As temperature rises, Mu falls.
What is the formula for Reynolds number? R=(Rho*V*D)/Mu V is mean velocity and D is a length scale. An alternate formula is (V*D)/Nu, as Nu=Mu/Rho
What are some assumptions made in the static pressure equation used in class? Assumed inviscid flow, assumed homogeneous fluid, assumed zero Tau, assumed zero acceleration, assumed incompressible (Gamma is constant).
What is the Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution equation? P1-P2=Gamma*H
What is the formula for pressure gage from surface? P=Gamma*H
How is pressure head defined? (P1-P2)/Gamma=H
What is standard atmospheric pressure and temperature in B.G. units? 14.7 psi and 59 degrees F.
If a question doesn't specify pressure or temperature, should we assume one? Yes, use STP.
What is the definition of a Newtonian fluid as used in this course? Viscosity is constant.
What is a boundary layer? The layer next to a surface where the no-slip condition is created.
When talking about the boundary layer, what is the height of the boundary layer referred to? Delta.
What is the boundary layer caused by? (Simplified) Viscosity
What is the symbol used for Dynamic Viscosity? Mu
What is the symbol used for Kinematic Viscosity? Nu
How are Dynamic and Kinematic viscosities related? Mu=Nu*Rho
What are the units in SI for Shear Stress? Newton/m^2
How many feet are in a meter? 1m=3.28ft
What is the definition for Kinematic Viscosity? Tau*dY/dU or Nu*Rho
How are Specific Weight and Density related mathematically? Gamm=Rho*g
Created by: gdpoc

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