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firstheartexam

learning about the heart

QuestionAnswer
mediastinum in the thoracic, split into two parts, contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, and large blood vessels attached to the heart
where does the heart start and end? starts on the second rib and ends on the sixth
what are the four layers of the heart in order? endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, pericardium
endocardium innermost layer of the heart; thin; smooth
myocardium thick middle layer of the heart; allows the heart to pump
epicardium outermost layer of the heart; thin
pericardium sling-like sac that supports the heart and attaches is to other organs
what does -edema mean? swelling
the heart is a _____ pump? double
pulmonic circulation path of blood that flows from the right side of the heart, through the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
systemic circulation path of blood the flows from the left side of the heart to all the organs of the body and back to the right side of the heart
what do valves do? they prevent blood from flowing backward
what are chordae tendinae? string like structures that keep valves from flowing backward
what does AV stand for? atrioventricular
what do the av valves include? tricuspid and mitral
what does SV stand for? semilunar
what do the av valves include? pulmonic and aortic
what are the sounds the heart makes? lubb dupp
what does the "lubb" stand for? closure of the av valves
what does the "dupe" stand for? closure of the sv valves
what supplies blood to the myocardium? the coronary arteries
what does LCA stand for? Left coronary artery
what does RCA stand for? right coronary artery
what two branches make up the LCA? left anterior descending and the circumflex
myocardial cell death is also known as myocardial infarction
necrosis means cell death
what does infarct mean? tissue death
what is ischemia? inadequate blood flow to the heart, decreasing oxygen supply
what is angina? chest pains that occur when your heart doesn't receive enough oxygen
what is the cardiac conduction system? provides stimulus for muscle contraction and coordinates the pumping activity for the atria and ventricles by sending electrical signals
list in order the movement of electrical impulses of the heart sa node, av node, bundle of his, right and left bundle branch, purkinje fibers
what does sa stand for? sinoatrial
what does av stand for? atrioventricular
what does ectopic mean? any impulse that originates from outside the sa node
what is an electrocardiogram? the recording of the electrical activity of the heart
P wave reflects the electrical activity associated with atrial depolarization
what does depolarization mean? contraction
QRS complex reflects the electrical activity associated with ventricular depolarization
T wave represents ventricular repolarization
what is repolarization? relaxing and filling
P-R interval represents the time it takes for the cardiac impulse from the atria to the ventricles
what is a normal ejection fraction? 67 percent
what does EF represent? the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the ventricle with each beat
what are the 2 characteristics of cardiac tissue? automaticity and rhythmicity
automaticity: when the cardiac impulse arises from within the cardiac tissue itself
rhythmicity: the cardiac tissue fires a cardiac impulse regularly
what happens when a heart becomes leaky? it backs up into the chamber where it came from
Created by: alexadenise