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Criminology Part One

CJ 111 Chapters 1-3

DefinitionTerm
People choose to commit crime after weighing the benefits and costs of their actions. Crime can be deterred by certain, severe, and swift punishment. Classical Theory
Some people have biological and mental traits that make them crime prone. These traits are inherited and are present at birth. Mental and physical degeneracies are the cause of crime. Positivist Theory
Crime is a function of class struggle. The capitalist system's emphasis on competition and wealth produces an economic and social environment in which crime is inevitable. Marxist/Conflict Theory
A person's place in the social structure determines his or her behavior. A lack of legitimate opportunities produces criminal subcultures. Socialization within the family, the school, and the peer group controls the behavior. Sociological Theory
Crime is a function of environmental, socialization, physical, and psychological factors. Each makes an independent contribution to shaping and directing behavior patterns. Multifactor/Integrated Theory
People who are crime victims may be more likely to commit crime themselves. Cycle of Violence
A serious offense that carries a penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more. Felony
A minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/ or a fine. Misdemeanor
The willful killing of one human being by another. Deaths caused by negligence, attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, and justifiable homicides are excluded. Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter
The killing of another person through gross negligence. Traffic fatalities are excluded. Although manslaughter by negligence is a part 1 crime, it is not included in the crime index. Manslaughter by Negligence
The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Included are rapes by force and attempts or assaults to rape. Statutory offenses (no force used - victim under age of consent) are excluded. Forcible Rape
The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. Robbery
An unlawful attack by one person ypon another for the purpose of inflicting sever or aggravated bodily injury. Aggravated Assault
The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. Attempted forcible entry is included. Burglary/Breaking or Entering
The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Larceny/Theft
The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. Specifically excluded from this category are motorboats, airplanes, construction equipment, and farming equipment. Motor Vehicle Theft
Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burnk with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle, or aircraft, personal property of another, or the like Arson
Includes both crimes reported to local law enforcement departments and the number of arrests made by police agencies. (UCR) Uniform Crime Report
Criminal acts such as sex crimes, drug trafficking, and vandalism. Part II crimes
Criminal acts such as Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, arson, and motor vehicle theft Part I Crimes
A program that collects data on each reported crime incident. National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
The process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics. Data Sampling
When a survey is representative of all members of society. Cross-Sectional Survey
A comprehensive nationwide survey of victimization in the US. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
Descriptions in detail of their recent and lifetime participation in criminal activity. Self-Report Surveys
Involves observing a group of people who share a like characteristic over time. Cohort
Because it is extremely difficult, expensive, and time-consuming to follow a cohort over time, another approach is to take an intact cohort from the past and collect data from their educational, family, police, and hospital records. Retrospective Cohort Study
Created by: Cbarr22