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leaves stems and root systems

What are 4 functions of roots? anchor plant into soil absorb water and minerals storage of food reproductiom
What is a primary root? a root that developes from the seed or from base of a stem or from base of a stem in the case of ferns
What is a secondary root? ussually found in grain crops
What is a tap root? root with a primary root and multiple secondary roots. Often an important food source is used in medicine and flavoring foods EX beet carrot Parsnip Radish Turnip Sweet potato
What is a Fibrous root? a root with a single primary root and hairlike projections from the bottom. it holds the top soil in place and prevents soil erosion.
What are the 6 parts of the plants? Xylem Phloem Cambium Nodes Internodes Buds
What are the 4 types of above ground modified stems? Crowns Spurs Thorns stolons
What are the 4 types of below ground modified stems? Rhizomes Tubers bulbs corms
What is a bud? undeveloped shoot that gives rise to leaves or flower parts
What are the 4 types of buds leaf flower terminal lateral adventitious
What are Meristematic Tissues? sites of repeated cell division of unspecialized cells the cells differentiate and becomes specialized in function
What are vascular tissues? tissues that conduct food & water throughout plant
The xylem... conducts water and minerals
the phloem... cunducts foods produced via photosynthesis
the cambium... is a meristemmatic tissue giving rise to new xylem and phloem
What is a florescence? a group or cluster of flowers on the same peduncle
What is a rachis? central axis of a spike
What is a Spike? flowers attached directly to rachis
What is a sessile? flowers attached directly to rachis without a pedicel ex- wheat barley rye in corn the ear is a modified spike and the rachis is the cob
What is a raceme? just like spike except raceme has a pedicel flowers are pedicellate alfalfa sweet clover soy beans
What is a Panicle? has many branches that connect the flowers flowers may be sessile or pedicellate
What is a corymb? pedicles of different lengths attach at different locations on axis to create flat-topped infloresence
What is a umbel? has no central axis all pedicles attach at same point at base of florescence?
What is a head? has many sessile flowers that are tightly clustered on a flattened recepticle
what are ray flowers flowers that have petals ussually at edge, and ussually sterile
what are disk flowers? flowers with no petals are in the center usually fertile
What is a capitulum? similar to head inflorescence except the head is rounded flowers can be sessile of pedicellate red clover white clover capit in latin means head
What is a fruit? ripened ovary of a plant containing seeds
what are the 3 parts of a seed? embryo endosperm seed coat
what are the parts of the embryo? radicle hypocotyl epicotyl cotyledons
thick coated seeds... germinate slower but are more protected from environment
thin coated seeds... germinate faster
What is endosperm? Short term food supply formed at fertilization but not part of embryo used by embryo to fuel its growth in mature beans endosperm no longer there
What is a seed? a mature ovule containing an embryo
What is the radicle? the part that developes into the primary root.
What is a coleorhiza? protective sheath around radicle
What is a hypocotyl? the internode jsut below the cotyledon node
What is a coleoptile protective sheath for leaves during emergence
What is the hilum? scar where seed attached to ovary wall
What is the micropyle? before fertilization of egg
What is the Raphe? Slight ridge along edge of seed
What is the testa? the seed coat of dicots
What are the cotyledons? food reserves for seed dormancy and germination
What is the cotyledonary node? where two cotyledons attach to the rest of the embryo
What happens in STAGE 1 of germination? Activation/ imbibition rapid absorption of water protein synthesis is activated enzyme driven
What happens in STAGE 2 of germination? Lag Phase/ Digestion and Translocation metabolic processes kick in
What happens in STAGE 3 of germination? cell division and elongation radicle emerges first then plumule emerges
What is hypogeal germination? Cotyledon emerge above soil surface results from hypocotyl extension
What is Epigeal germination? seed cotyledons remain underground results from epicotyl elongation
What are advantages to hypogeal germination? ~take less energy for emergence ~can plant deeper ~frost protection
What are advantages to epigeal germination? ~cotyledons may protect apical meristem if unfavorable weather occurs ~herbivores may damage the cotyledons but not the entire plant
Created by: 684552012