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Genki II Lesson 13 G

Genki II Lesson 13 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
potential verbs indicates that someone "can," or "has the ability" to do the verb action, or that the verb action is "possible." (paraphrase) Change in form sort of creates a new verb.
potential verbs, る-verbs, form る--->られる
potential verbs, う-verbs, form う--->える
potential verbs, くる, form こられる
potential verbs, する, form できる
potential verbs, る-verbs and くる, shorter form る--->れる. "Gaining popularity especially among younger speakers, but considered slightly substandard."
potential verbs, conjugation conjugates as a る verb
potential verbs, particles verbs that took を can now take を or が. できる takes が almost all of the time. Particles other than を don't change.
"can do," alternate way use verb short form + ことができる. ことができない for negative. Used mostly in writing.
used to specify two or more reasons.
し, syntax Each clause (ending in a predicate) followed by し, and can come before or after the "situation" statement. There can be multiple reason clauses or one reason clause. If used for only one clause, other reasons are implied to exist.
し, predicate conjugation short form
し, very polite form can follow long forms like から can.
そうです (It looks like . . .), expressing an impression or guess follows a verb stem. May express any guess or impression, but also specifically may express an impression that an event is about to happen.
~てみる "expresses the idea of 'doing something tentatively,' or 'trying something.' You are not sure what the outcome of your action will be, but do it and see what effect it will have."
~てみる, form comes from 見る, but never written in kanji. Conjugates as a regular る-verb
なら "noun A なら predicate X" means that predicate X only applies to noun A. Mainly used for contrast or limitation. Introduces something positive about what is contrasted.
なら, particles ones such as に, で, and から are optional, whereas は, が, and を are prohibited
(example) Q: Have you ever been to Brazil? A: I've been to Chile, but never to Brazil. Q: ブラジルに行ったことがありますか。 A: チリなら行ったことがありますが、ブラジルは行ったことがありません。
(example) Q: Do you understand Japanese? A: If it is (written) in hiragana, yes. A: 日本語がわかりますか。 Q: ひらがなならわかります。
verbs for playing instruments different ones depending on the instrument
verb for playing string and keyboard instruments ひく
verb for playing wind instruments ふく
verb for percussion instruments たたく
musical instruments in general やる and できる (for potential)
Created by: ncommons