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Anatomy&Physiology

chapter1

QuestionAnswer
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. Anatomy
the study of the function of the body's structural machinery Physiology
Anatomy includes three parts:__,__,___ Gross or macroscopic, Microscopic,Developmental
Gross Anatomy divided into three parts:__,__,__ Regional, Systemic, Surface
All structures in one part of the body(such as the abdomen or leg) Regional
Gross anatomy of the body studies by system. Systemic
Study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin. Surface
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. Anatomy
the study of the function of the body's structural machinery Physiology
Anatomy includes three parts:__,__,___ Gross or macroscopic, Microscopic,Developmental
Gross Anatomy divided into three parts:__,__,__ Regional, Systemic, Surface
All structures in one part of the body(such as the abdomen or leg) Regional
Gross anatomy of the body studies by system. Systemic
Study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin. Surface
Microscopic Anatomy includes: ___ and___ Cytology and Histology.
study of cells Cytology
study of tissues Histology
structural changes throughout the life span Developmental Anatomy
Branch of developmental anatomy studying changes in the body before birth Embryology
Physiology focuses on the ___ of the body functions
Physiology includes three levels Organ system level, Cellular level, Molecular level
How cells function together and in tissues. cellular level
Skeletal physiology and muscle physiology belongs to___ level organ system level
How individual molecules affect cell function ,eg DNA, proteins, chemical messengers. molecular level
Anatomy and physiology are ___ inseparable
What a structure does depends on its specific __ form
form and function are ___ complementary
levels of structural organization:1.chemical level.2.Cellular level,3.Tissue level.4.___ level,5___,6__- organ ,organ system level, organismal system level
Organ systems of the body:1.Integumentary2.skeletal 3.muscular 4.nervous 5.cardiovascular 6.lymphatic 7.respiratory 8.digestive 9___,10___,11____ urinary, reproductive, endocrine
What functions are vital to human life? Maintaining boundaries-the ____ environment remains distinct from the ___ internal, external
celluar level accomplished by ____membranes. plasma
Organismal level accomplished by the ___ skin
Locomotion propulsion of substances within the body, and contractility of muscles. movement
what systems functions for movement skeletal system,muscular system
ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them Responsiveness(Nervous sys,Endocrine, Cardivascular)
Ability to obtain energy and nutrients respiratory and disgestive System and metabolism
what function are vital to human life:1-5. 1.___2.prsponsiveness,3____4.Excretion.5Reproduction. maintaining boundaries the internal environment remains distinct from the external, excretion
removal of wastes excretion(urinary system)
Reproduction includes:Cellular,___, Growth organismal
what's survival needs? Nutrients,____, water___, Atmospheric pressure oxygen, normal body temperature(37C/98.6F)
the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in a hostile, changing outside world. Homeostasis
The internal environment of the body is in a state of _____ dynamic equlibrium
Thousands of complex biochemical and physcal factors interact to maintain ____ Homeostasis
Homeostasis control mechanisms includes___,___,effector receptor, control center
In ______ feedback systems, the final product in the cycle or pathway shuts off the original stumulus negative
In ____negative__ feedback systems, the final product in the cycle or pathway shuts off the original stimulus, includes: Regulation of blood glucose levels; monthly hormonal cycles in females
Homeostatic control mechanisms orders:1.Stimulus 2 Receptor 3.input4.output5.___ Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stumulus and returns variable to homeostatic
most homeostatic control mechanisms are __ feedback mechanisms. negative
In a few rare cases, it is desirable for the final product to ___ or the original stimulus. Regulation of blood clotting, Labor and delivery. enhance or exaggerate.
When homeostatic mechanisms are overwhelmed,___ occurs. disease.
Many treatment modalities have the philosophy that disease is best treated by retuning the body to____ homeostasis.
The student is responsible for learning 1.orientation and directional terms.2.Regional terms.3___,4___ Body planes and sections, Abdomnopelvic regions and quadrants.
____ terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding special
Exact terms are used for:1.position.2.Direction 3.Regions4.structures
There are two body cavites: dorsal and ventral
___ cavity protects the nervous system, with two subdivisions: cranial and vertebral cavity dorsal
___ cavity is within the skull and encases the brain cranial
___ cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord. vertebral
___ cavity houses the internal organs(visceral) with two subdivisions: thoracic and abdominopelvic Ventral
thoracic cavity has 3 subdivisons:___,___,___ Pleural cavities, Pericardial cavities, Mediastinum
Abdominopelvic cavity separated from the thoracic cavity by the ___ diaphragm
___ cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other viscera. abdominal
____ cavity contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum. pelvic
mouth and cavities of the digestive organs oral and digestive cavity
located within and posterior to the nose nasal cavity
houses the eyes orbital
contain bones that transmit sound vibrations. middle ear cavity
joint cavites Synovial
Body cavities are lined with ____ membranes;secrete a thin, watery serous fluid that provides___. serouslubrication
One lines the body cavity itself, the other lines the outside of the organ Double membranes.
_____ serosa lines body cavity walls parietal
_____ serosa covers the internal organ s Visceral
Serous fluid lies between the___ membranes. double
three serous membranes associated with the heart. Parietal pericardium, Pericardial space with serous fluid, Visceral pericardium.
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