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Biology chapter 4


Enanti Opposite
carb coal
Sulf Sulfur
Thio Sulfur
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to hydrogen atoms (-NH2) amino Group
Carbon atoms covalently bonded with four atoms or groups, no two of which are alike Asymmetric carbon
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom (-C=O) Carbonyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group (-COOH) Carboxyl group
Arrangement of two noncarbon atoms, each bound to one of the carbons in a Carbon-carbon double bond, where the two noncarbon atoms are on the same side relative to the double bonds cis
One of two molecules that are mirror images of each other Enantiomer
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions Functional group
One of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements other atoms around a double bond Geometric isomer
an organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbon
A functional group consisting of hydrogen atoms joined to an oxygen atoms by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols Hydroxyl group
One of several organic molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties Isomers
The study of carbon or organic compounds Organic chemistry
A functional group important in energy transfer which contains a phosphorus atom bonded to carbon and four oxygen atoms Phosphate group
One of several organic molecules that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent branching arrangements of their atoms Structural isomer
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom Sulfhydryl group
Inorganic compound which contains a sulfhydryl group thiol
Arrangement of two noncarbon atoms, each bound to one of the carbons in a Carbon carbon double bond, where the two noncarbon atoms are on the opposite side relative to the double bonds trans
Organic molecules have what as the predominant element? Carbon
Carbon can form how many bonds, allowing it to create many versatile molecules of varying lengths, position of double bonds and ring structures? 4
Carbon most commonly bonds with (blank) which is capable of one bond, (blank) which is capable of three bonds, and (blank) which is capable of two bonds? Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
A (blank) is entirely made of carbon and hydrogen and is hydrophobic due to the nonpolar bonds between carbon and hydrogen items Hydrocarbon
What are molecules that have the same molecular formulas, thus the same elements and quantities and same molecular weight, but different structural formulas therefore they can vary in chemical behavior and properties? Isomers
Structural isomers differ in what? The carbon chain branching pattern
Geometric isomers differ in what? The arrangement around a double bond
CIS isomers have atom groupings on what side of the double bond? The same side
Trans isomers have atom groupings on what side of the double bond? The opposite side
Enantiomers contain an asymmetric carbon that is bound to how many different bonding partners? 4
What is the name for common collections of atoms that give particular characteristics to molecules that possess them? Functional groups
examples of functional groups are what? Methyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate
Carbon has an atomic number of what? Meaning it has the same number of electrons Six
What are long chains of carbons bonded to each other with the other bonds of the carbon satisfied by adding hydrogen atoms? Hydrocarbons
Bonds between adjacent carbon as well as those between the carbon and hydrogen are what do to their almost equal electronegativity values? Nonpolar covalent
The entire hydrogen carbon is neutral with no spots of transient charge which allows it to be what? Hydrophobic or water repelling
Carbon bonded to oxygen which is bonded to a hydrogen C-OH Hydroxyl
Organic compounds with -OH Alcohols
Hydroxyl is (blank) so it's soluble in water polar
Carbon double bonded to oxygen C=O Carbonyl
A carbonyl at the end of the skeleton is called what? Aldehyde
A carbonyl in the middle is called what Ketone
Carbon double bonded to oxygen and hydroxyl groups -COOH Carboxyl
Two examples of carboxyl's are what? Carboxylic acid or organic acids
Carbon bonded to a nitrogen that is bonded to 2H: C-NH2 Amino
Have the functional group amino amines
Monomers of protein also called what? Have both amino group and carboxyl group Amino acids
Carbon bonded to sulfur which is bonded to a hydrogen C-SH Sulfhydryl
Sulfur can form how many covalent bonds? 2
Sulfur has a valence of what? 6
Organic compounds containing sulfhydryl's Thiols
What stabilizes the structure of proteins? Disulfide bridges
Phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms with one bond double Phosphates
Phosphates typically have a charge due to the loss of what? H+
Phosphate is an important role in energy transfer of what? ATP
Carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms Methyl
1×10 to the -8 moles for H concentration is a pH of what? 8
What is the backbone of biological molecules? Carbon
How many unpaired valence electrons does Carbon have? 4
How many covalent bonds can carbon form? 4
A chain of carbon is also called a what? Carbon skeleton
If carbon doesn't have enough hydrogen, it well (blank blank) in order to complete its valence shell Double bond
Oxygen can only have how many bonds total? 2
The longer the carbon chain the more what? Energy
Double bond location can change how molecules what? Behave chemically
Created by: SarahRupp22
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