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Bio101 Chpt 4

Campbell Biology101 Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell

QuestionAnswer
Cell Theory States that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells.
Plasma Membrance Forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings.
Chromosomes The main DNA gene carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell.
Ribosomes Tine structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes.
Cytoplasm The region between the nucleus and the membrane where all the organelles are.
Nucleoid Nucleus like but does not contain a membrane around the DNA.
Flagella Short hair like structures that help a cell propel through its liquid environment.
Organelles Little organs which perform specific function in the cell.
Cellular Metabolism Chemical activities of cells that occur within organelles.
Nucleus Contains the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activities.
Chromatin When a cell does not divide the proteins and DNA appear as a diffuse mass.
Nucleolus A prominent structure in the nucleus.
Endomembrane System A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
Vesicles Tiny sacs made of membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) An extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed or ribosome studded or ribsome free regions.
Golgi Apparatus Modification and sorting of macromolecules; formation of lysomes and transport vesicles.
Lysosome Digestion of ingested food, bacteria, and a cell's damaged organelles and macromelecules for recycling.
Vacuoles Digestion; storage of chemicals and cell enlargement; water balance.
Central Vacuole Helps a cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging it.
Peroxisomes An organelle containing enzymes taht tranfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
Mitochondria Conversion of chemical energy in food to chemical energy of ATP.
Cristae An infolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Chloroplasts Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars.
Stroma The dense fluid within the chloroplasts that surrounds the thylakoid membrane and is involved int eh systhesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Thylakoids A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplasts.
Granum A stack of membrane bounded thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Cytoskeleton A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
Microfilaments The thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell.
Microtubules The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell.
Centrioles A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubules triplets arranged in a pattern.
Cilia A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion.
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Support; regulation of cellular activities.
Integrins A transmembrane protein that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Plasmodesmata An open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of cytoplasm connect from a adjacent cells.
Cell Walls Support and protect; binding of cells in tissues.
Created by: dtgs2010