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Bio101 Chpt 2

Campbell Biology101 Chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life

TermDefinition
Matter Anything that takes up space.
Element Substance that can't be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means.
Compound A Substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Trace Elements Are essential but only in very small quantities.
Proton A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge.
Electron A subatomic particle with a single negative charge
Neutron Is electrically neutral; has no charge.
Atomic Number The number of protons an atom has.
Mass Number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
Atomic Mass Is equal to its mass number.
Isotopes An element that has the same number of protons and behave identically in chemical reactions, but they have different numbers of neutrons.
Radioactive Isotope Where a nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
Electron Shells Depending on an elements atomic number, an atom may have one, two, or more of these surrounding the nucleus.
Chemical Bonds An attraction between two atoms resulting form a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms.
Covalent Bond The strongest kind of chemical bond; where two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons.
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond Where electrons are shared equally between the atoms.
Polar Covalent Bond Unequal sharing of electrons.
Polar Molecule Has an unequal distribution of charges; negative at the oxygen and positive at each of the two hydrogen ends.
Ion An atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of one or more electrons.
Ionic Bond A chemical bond resulting form the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Hydrogen Bond Weakest of all bonds.
Chemical Reaction The breaking and making of chemical bonds which lead to changes in the composition of matter.
Surface Tension A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
Heat Amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in the body of matter.
Temperature Measures the intensity of heat; the average speed of molecules rather the an the total amount of heat energy in a body of matter.
Solution Liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances.
Solvant The dissolving agent (i.e. water).
Salute Substance being dissolved.
Acid A compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions. H+
Base A compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solution. OH-
pH Scale Describes how acidic or basic a solution is.
Created by: dtgs2010