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Ch. 41 vocabulary

Environmental Microbiology and Genetic Engineering

Abyssal zone deep trenches in the ocean floor-microbes live here in lower numbers-many are quite different from terrestrial organism
Actinomycete genera Nocardia and Steptomyces inhabit most soils, including deserts-heterotrophs that break down organic matter-Strptomyces provide scores of ABTs now in use
Ammonification proteins degraded to amino acids and nucleic acids to nucleotides, these subunits further degraded to release nitrogen in form of ammonia
Azotobacter free-living bacterium that fixes nitrogen in areas such as brasslands
Benthic zones general ocean floor
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measures pollution-measuring oxygen utilized from water sample over time-as microbial numbers increase-oxygen utilation rate increases and remaining oxygen decreases--clean water low rate-polluted water high rate
Bioremediation use of living organisms as a remedy
Contaminated water contains infectious microbes or toxic substances
Denitrification Pseudomonas utilizes nitrate in place of oxygen for anarebe respiration--form nitrogen gas-released into atmosphere and lost from availability to plants and animals-eventually remove all nitrogen and life would cease
eutrophy algae proliferate, die and settle to bottom of stream-microbes grow on dead algae and metabolize all oxygen-such loss of oxygen--absence of oxygen kills water life such as fish
Genetic engineering when toxin genes are cloned into plants/deleted to protect certain plants or animals-use of recominant DNA
Greenhouse effect global warming-earth's eat held in as heat held within a greenhouse-
Lichens mutualistic groups of algae and fungi-fungi protect algae and help nutritionally-algae fix nitrogen from air into forms used by fungi-algae also photosynthetic and provide organic nutrients for fungi
Liquid phase part of sewage tx-alum may be used to increase amount of microorganism-sized prticles removed from liquid-air blown through liquid to assist growth of aerobic bacteria that rapidly break down residual organics into simple sugars, acids, amino acids
Littoral zone near shoreline and contains most of nutrients and microorganisms
Methanogens group of strictly anaerobic Archaea-grow in swamps and manure-combine carbon dioxide with hydrogen and form methane and wather-methane natural gas burned in furnaces, water heaters , and gas stoves
Mycorrhizae fungal group grows mutualistically with plant roots-fungi help plants obtain minerals--plants provide a growing niche for fungi
Nutrification oxidation of amonia to nitrate by bacteria Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacter
Nitrogen fixation bacteria that reclaim nitrogen gas from the atmosphere
Polluted water contains obvious contaminates indicated by its appearance, smell,etc.-develops when large amounts of organic material enter the water and become a nutritional source for bacteria
Potable water water fit to drink
Rhizobium bacteria attach to roots of legumes and plants form nodules around them-efficient at nitrogen fixation
Sewage treatment degrades and removes particulate matter and kills harmful microorganisms
Sludge solids in sewage
Water purification (blank)
Created by: heatherlvn